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The Zero Marginal Cost Society

Cat: ECO
Pub: 2015

Jeremy Rifkin


The Zero Marginal Cost Society


  1. Introduction:
  2. Great Paradigm Shift from Market Capitalism to the Collaborative Commons:
  3. European Enclosures and Birth of the Market Economy:
  4. Courtship of Capitalism and Vertical Integration:
  5. Human Nature through a Capitalist Lens:
  6. Extreme Productivity, IoT and Free Energy:
  7. 3D printing: from mass production to production by the masses:
  8. MOOCs and Zero Marginal Cost Education:
  9. The Last Worker Standing:
  10. Ascent of the Prosumer and Build-out of the Smart Economy:
  11. The Comedy of the Commons:
  12. Collaboratists Prepare for Battle:
  13. The Struggle to Define and Control the Intelligent Infrastructure:
  14. Transformation from Ownership to Access:
  15. Crowdfunding Social Capital, Democratizing Currency, Humanizing Entrepreneurship, and Rethinking Work:
  16. The Sustainable Cornucopia:
  17. A Bioshere Lifestyle:
  1. 序文:
  2. 市場資本主義から協同コモンズへの大変化:
  3. 欧州での囲い込みと市場経済の誕生:
  4. 資本主義の進展と垂直統合:
  5. 資本家レンズを通した人間の本質:
  6. 超生産性・IoT・フリーエネルギー:
  7. 3Dプリンタ: 大量生産から大衆による生産:
  8. 公開オンライン講座とゼロ限界費用教育:
  9. 最後の労働者の立場:
  10. プロシューマの登場とスマート経済の発展:
  11. コモンズの喜劇:
  12. 協同者は戦いを準備中:
  13. インテリジェント・インフラの定義と管理を巡る戦い:
  14. 所有からアクセスへの変革:
  15. クラウドファンド・貨幣の民主化・企業の人道化・労働の再考:
  16. 再生可能な豊穣:
  17. 生物圏のライフスタイル:
; Appropriate technology; Bioinformatics; Collaborative commons; Commu-Energy-Trans matrices; Creative Commons; DoT; Ecological footprint; Extreme productivity; Free WiFi; Global Virtual Commons; Great Chain of Being; IBAR; Infofacture; L3C Laws; Light-out production; Long-term stagnation; Measure of ignorance; MOOCs; Network Neutrality; P2P Lending; PoT; SDL; Social commons; Soul mate; WSIS; TIR; Zero marginal cost;

>Top 0. Introduction:

  • The author wrote 'Entropy - A New World View' in 1980, 'The End of Work in 1995 , who wrote 'The Age of Access' in 2000, and 'this 'Zero Marginal Cost Society.' in 2015; these are the serious of books describing changing society reflecting the advancement latest ICT technologies.

0. 序文


>Top 1. Great Paradigm Shift from Market Capitalism to the Collaborative Commons:

  • Capitalism is giving birth to a progeny:
    • Sharing economy on the Collaborative Commons, since the advent of capitalism and socialism in early 19C.
    • It is challenging 1) narrowing the income divide, 2) democratizing the global economy, 3) creating more sustainable society.
  • At the heart of capitalism there lies a contradiction in the driving mechanism that has propelled it, but now is speeding into to its death.
    • Capitalism's operating logic is designed to fail by succeeding.
    • If one or a few seller are able to outgrow and eliminate their competition and establish a monopoly or oligopoly.
    • >Top The competitive process leads to extreme productivity: each additional unit introduced for sale approaches near zero marginal cost.
      • The new zero marginal cost phenomenon has already wreaked havoc on the the publishing, communications, and entertainment industry; including 1) renewable energy, 2) 3D printing, and 3) online higher education (MOOCs; Massive Open Online Courses)
  • In mature industries:
    • A handful of enterprises would have every interest in blocking further economic progress in order to protect the value of the capital already invested in outmoded technology.
    • When the maintenance of the value of the capital becomes the chief concern of the entrepreneurs, further economic progress has to stop, or to slow down considerably.
  • >Top The Social Commons (=Collaborative Commons) is growing faster:
    • Markets and governments are an extension of a people's social identity. Without the continuous replenishment of social capital, there would be insufficient trust to enable markets and governments to function.
    • While the capitalist market is based on self-interest and riven by material gain, the social Commons is motivated by collaborative interests and driven by a desire to connect with others and share.
      • Global technology platform potentially optimize the very values and operational principles that animate this age-old institution.
      • IoT is technological soul mate of an emerging Collaborative Commons; to facilitate collaboration, search for synergies, advancing the social economy, encourage sharing culture; become dominant economic paradigm of 21C through P2P social network; turn everyone into a prosumer.
    • Search of 5M books between 1500 and 2008: 'collaborative' first used in 1940s and 50s, paralleling the emergence of computer.
      • traditional dream of rag to riches i being supplanted by a new dream of a sustainable quality of life.
      • Both entrepreneurial and social is no longer an oxymoron, but rather a tautology.
    • >Top New type of long-term economic stagnation emerging around the world is an indicator of transformation taking place as the economy shifts from exchange value to sharable value.
  • GDP metrics:
    • measuring economic performance in marketplace: with no attempt to differentiate between negative and positive impact:
      • cleaning up toxic waste dumps, police protection, prison facilities, military appropriations are all included in GDP.

1. 市場資本主義から協同コモンズへの大変化:

  • progeny: 子孫、後継者
  • collaborative commons: 協同型コモンズ
  • at odds: 不仲で
  • caveat: a warning
  • wreak havoc in: cause damage
  • defunct: no longer functioning
  • outmoded: old-fashioned
  • ascendant: rising in power
  • forage: search
  • horde: large number of people
  • cauldron: a large metal pot
  • magnum opus: best work
  • posit: base sth on the truth
  • caveat: a warning
  • havoc: widespread destruction
  • not unlike: almost equal
  • defunct: no longer existing
  • conundrum: difficult problem
  • shackle: restrain, limit
  • zero marginal cost: Energy, Goods, & Service
  • Social Commons=Collaborative Commons
    • IoT
    • P2P social network
    • soul mate
    • prosumer
    • cloud funding
    • exchange value →sharable value
  • entrepreneurial and social is rather tautology
    • long-term stagnation
    • zero marginal cost
    • GDP begins to wane
    • zero interest?
  • GDP is beginning to wane:
    • GDP metrics; include negative impact.
    • quality of life
  • CET (Communication/Energy/Transportation):
    Internet, Solar-Wind, EV : turning point in the human journey

>Top 2. The European Enclosures and the Birth of the Market Economy:

  • The feudal economy in Europe:
    • Woodlands of Europe produced thermal energy for hating and small-scale metallurgy.
    • Old Roman roads abandoned and trade virtually disappeared between 7C - 12C (600 years).
    • Virtually all economic production was for immediate use and only surpluses were traded in local fair.
    • Feudal landloads leased their land to peasant farmers under various tenancy arrangements.
  • >Top Feudal agriculture was communally structured:
    • common pastures
    • Peasant councils were responsible for overseeing economic activity (planting, harvesting, crop rotation, use of forest and water, number of animals)
    • All earthy things made up God's creating and were his exclusively to dispose of. (Great Chain of Being)
      • a series of trusts administered pyramidally from the celestial throne down to the peasants.
      • property was never exclusively owned
  • In 1500s (16-19C): new economic forces began, beginning in Tudor England and later spreading to Europe.
    • The Enclosure Movement; the revolution of the rich against the poor.
      • Millions of peasants were uprooted from their ancestral lands; available for hire in medieval marketplace.
      • incipient textile industry forced up the rice of wool.
    • People were reduced to starvation while sheep were fattened and fleeced to rush wool.
  • In 1760-1840s: The First Industrial Revolution:
    • land now belonged to individual people in the form of real estate exchangeable in the marketplace.
    • labor similarly became a form of exclusive property that could be freely bought in the marketplace.
  • Rise of Market Economy:
    • coming together of print revolution, and water and wind power ushered to the market economy.
    • water mills and windmills were used in milling grains, tanning, laundering, operating bellows for blast furnaces, creating pigments for paint, crushing olives, etc.
    • Human feet were replaced by wooden hammers by the water mill.
    • In 1790s, there were half a million water mills operating in Europe, equivalent 2.25M horse powers (HP).
      • Average windmill could produce 30 HP.
    • Shift from a subsistence economy to a market economy
    • In 1436 Goldenberg; accompanying communication revolution by printing
      • print stored memory and systematized the retrieval of information in the form of tables, indexes, footnotes, and bibliographies.
      • print not only standardized maps, but made them cheap, making land travel and navigation more predictable and accessible for commercial trade.
      • print also enabled commercial contracts, in advancing long-distance trade.
      • In the feudal economy, economic interaction relied on the spoken word, economic activity was largely constrained by walking distance.
      • even today; audit to describe financial probes; auditors spoke the financial information out loud to one another as a way of verifying.
        • Print opened the way to do bookkeeping.
        • with print commercial trust was sealed in written accounts accompanied by signatures.
    • 'Northern Renaissance': awakening of arts, literature, scientific experimentation, and exploration of new worlds.
      • craftsmen in towns: organized in guilds; metalworkers, weavers, dyers, armorers, masons,
      • while merchants were struggling with craft guilds; a new force of small-manufacturing entrepreneurs were battle the guilds to open up domestic markets for their cheaper goods.
        • Subordination of production to capital is the crucial watershed between the old mode of production and the new.
      • Overseas colonies were prevented from producing finished goods. Producing cheap raw materials for export, and then forced to buy the finished goods from home country at a higher price.

2. 欧州での囲い込みと市場経済の誕生:

  • plot: a small pieced of land
  • graze: eat grass in the field
  • communal: shared by all members of a community
  • oversee: supervise in an official capacity
  • Great Chain of Being: 存在の大いなる連鎖
  • divvy: share out
  • persist: continue of action
  • fleece: 刈り取り
  • subsistence: 最低限の生活・食料
  • watershed: 分水嶺
  • idiosyncrasy: 特異性
  • stultify: cause to appear foolish
  • granary: 穀物倉庫
  • mason: 石工
  • glazier: ガラス工
  • scrivener: 金貸し
  • upholsterer: 椅子張り職人
  • putting-out system: 問屋制家内工業, 前貸し制度; an early form of subcontracting
  • loom: 織機






  • The new CET: print, water-wind power, road-river transport sped up exchange and trade.


  • Putting-out system vs. craft guilds:
    問屋制工業 vs. ギルド
    非正規労働 vs. 正規労働

>Top 3. The courtship of Capitalism and Vertical Integration:

  • While capitalism operates through free market, free markets don't require capitalism.
  • Birth of capitalism:
    • until late 18C: capitalism didn't emerge with the introduction of steam power.
  • Coal-powered Steam Infrastructure:
    • In 1769, James Watt invented steam engine and first deployed to the cotton industry.
    • The productivity jumped from 22M to 366M pounds, and the cost of production plunged.
    • Hydraulic energy continued to be used in France than coal-fired steam engine.
    • Steam power rose from 4M HS in 1850 to 18.5M HS in 1870.
    • England was the first country to make the shift from water and wind to coal, followed by Germany. US quickly caught up. These three counties dominated the First Industrial Revolution.
      • By 1830sl, locomotives were travelling at 60 miles per hour.
      • from NY to Chicago by stagecoach took 3 weeks or more in 1847, but by 1857 the same trip by rail took 3 days.
      • By 1870, 70,000 miles of track were laid down, connecting much of the continental US.
      • By 1900, over 200,000 miles of track connected across the breadth of America.
  • Unique Capitalism:
    • Financing for transport infrastructure on this scale required the modern stock-holding corporation.
    • Much of the stock in US railroads were purchased by UK, French and German investors.
    • the workforce is stripped of its ownership of the tools to create the products, and the investors are stripped of their power to control and manage their businesses.
    • The major railroads brought mining properties to secure coal for their locomotives.
    • managing the acceleration and expansion of commerce and trade across national markets would have been impossible without an accompanying communications revolution.
    • The new print communications revolution:
      • In 1890, Printing integrated complex near Chicago rail yards, ensuring quick delivery of prints.
      • Millions of Americans purchases virtually all business and home goods by catalogs printed in Chicago printing houses by coal-powered steam printing, communicated by telegraph, and delivered by stream rail transport.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution:
    • Discovery of oil, invention of internal combustion engine, and telephone gave rise to a new CET complex.
      • Worldwide exploration and production of oil and gas were nearly $2.4T between 2000-2011.
      • Refining process is also difficult.
      • Marketing of oil is no less complicated.
    • In US, 5 companies control 34% of domestic oil exploration and production; Chevron, BP, Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, and Conoco Phillips.
    • In 1876, Bell invented the telephone; in 1885 created AT&T.
    • Electricity:
      • In 1900, only 5% of factories used electricity; 300% increase in productivity from steam power to electrification.
      • By 1910, 10% homes in us had electricity, and by 1929 most urban homes wee connected to electricity.
    • Automobiles:
      • By 1916, 3.4M autos were on US roads; by 1930 23M cars in US.
      • Automobiles consumed 20% of steel, 12% of aluminum, 10% of copper, 51% of lead, 95% of nickel, 35% of zinc, and 60% of rubber used in US.
    • Oil:
      • By 1930, oil had suppressed coal as the primary energy source in US.
    • Interstate Highway:
      • from 1950s to 1980s; most costly public works project.
      • factories began to relocate away from urban centers; deliveries from rail to trucking.
      • dramatic growth of the suburbs.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution:
    • peaked and crashed in 2008/7 ,when the crude oil peaked $147/bbl.
    • today, in the sunset of the fossil fuel era, the oil industry remains the most concentrated industry in the world; followed closely by telecom and electrical power generation & distribution industry.
      • 3 of 4 largest companies in the world are oil companies; Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, and BP.
      • underneath 10 banks - JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs, BOA Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley, Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, Credit Suisse, Barclays Capital, UBS, and Wells Fargo Securities - controlled 60% of world investment market.
      • beneath the financial investors are 500 global traders, with combined revenue of $22.5T (=1/3 of world $62T GDP)

3. 資本主義と垂直統合への熱情

  • plunge: rapid decrease
  • meticulous: showing great attention to detail
  Owner Manage Worker Tool
Home manufacture landlord peasant water/
capitalist ex-craftman


investor CEO labor steam/
IoT-AI cloud f. Exp.+AI robot AI


>Top 4. Human Nature through a Capitalist Lens:

  • Occupy Movement: Occupy Wall Street (OWS):
    • a protest movement began on 2011/9/17 against economic inequality; 99% vs. 1%
  • Rethinking Salvation:
    • Luther accused the pope that the Catholic church was neither God's chosen emissary on earth nor the anointed intermediary by which the faithful could communicate with the Lord. He argued that each man and woman stands alone before God, armed with the Bible, every Christian had a personal responsibility to interpret the word of God, without relying on church authority to decipher the meaning of the text and assume the role of gatekeeper to heaven.
    • John Calvin went a step further, calling on his followers to continuously work at improving their lot in life as a sign of possible election. (homo economics)
    • Max Weber referred to this process (=self-worth) that created the new man and woman of the market as 'the Protestant work ethic.'
  • Enlightenment view of human nature:
    • John Locke argued that each person creates his own property by adding his labor to the raw material of nature, transforming into things of value.
      • The coming of capitalism fundamentally changed the economic model. Craftsmen were stripped of their tools by capitalists and turned into free laborers, reclaiming only a portion of the labor in the form of a wage. The remainder went to the company in the form of profit.
      • Were the workers being deprived of their natural right to full ownership and disposition of the products they created with their own labor?
      • capital is stored-up labor and that therefore investors are 'adding' their past labor to the process.
    • Herbert Spencer has expressed the same idea by the Survival of the Fittest (of Darwin); he argued that all the structures in the universe develop from a simple state to an ever more complex state, characterized by greater integration of various parts.
  • IoT:
    • IoT will connect everyone and everything in a new economic paradigm that is far more complex than 1st/2nd Industrial Revolutions, but one whose architecture is distributed rather than centralized; by wary of laterally integrated networks on the Collaborative Commons, rather than vertically integrated businesses in the capitalist market.
    • New type of social enterprises can plug and play into IoT; to create p2p lateral economies of scale that eliminate all middlemen; reducing marginal costs to near zero, enabling the production and distribution of nearly free goods and services.
    • These economic changes are beginning to affect an even more profound change in human consciousness itself.

4. 資本家レンズを通した人間の本質:

  • emissary: diplomatic representative
  • lot: fate
  • futile: useless

>Top 5. Extreme Productivity, the IoT, and Free Energy:

  • What if millions of the marginal cost of human labor in the production and distribution were to plummet to near zero as intelligent technology substitutes for workers.
    • What would the human race do, and how would it define its future on Earth, if mass and professional labor were to disappear from economic life over the course of the next two generations?
  • Extreme Productivity:
    • Productivity is 'a measure of productive efficiency; as the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it.' If the cost of producing an additional good or service is nearly zero, that would be the optimum level of productivity.
    • Until recently, economists have measured productivity by machine capital and labor performance.
    • Robert Solow, Nobel laureate in 1987, found that machine capital and labor performance only accounted for 14% of all the economic growth.; 86% is a measure of our ignorance.
    • Reiner Kümmel, Germany, et al retraced the economic growth using three factor analysis of machine capital, labor performance, and energy use.
  • >Top Energy is missing in calculating productivity:
    • Barack Obama: no business in an integrated market economy can succeed without social infrastructure.
    • 1900-1929: US build 2nd Industrial Revolution infrastructure - electricity gird, telecom network, road system, oil and gas pipelines, water and sewer systems, and public school systems.
    • 1900-1980: US steadily rose energy efficiency from 2.48% to 12.3%; but nearly 87% of the energy was wasted during transmission. (measure of ignorance)
  • Thermodynamic efficiency:
    • 100% efficiency is impossible. Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure, it is conceivable to increase energy efficiency to 40% or more in the next 40 years.
  • IoT
    • In 1995, IoT was coined by Kevin Ashton (MIT Auto ID Center)
    • Enormous leap in productivity is possible; the first smart-infrastructure revolution in history that will connect every machine, business, residence and vehicle.
      • Every device will have sensors connected to the IoT; in 2013 3.5M ¥, and in 2030 100T sensors will connect to the IoT.
      • Cisco forecasts by 2022, IoT will generate $14.4T in cost saving.
      • Health care accounted for 10% of global GDP ($7.1T in 2011).
      • New Interne protocol: from IPv4 (4.3B) to IPv6 (340T-T-T) available addresses; most people have about 1000-5000 possessions.
      • sensors are placed in soil to detect subtle changes in vibrations and earth density to provide an early warning system for avalanche, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
      • digital water meters in homes to monitor water use patterns to inform likely leaks as well as ways to reduce water consumptions.
      • implanting sensors inside bodies to monitor bodily functions.
  • Privacy:
    • has long been considered a fundamental right; never been an inherent right.
    • enclosure and privatization of human life went hand-in-hand with those of the commons.
    • the right to privacy came to be the right to exclude.
    • moniker of the younger generation: transparency, collaboration, peer production
    • When everything is connected:
      • what boundaries need to be established to endure that an individual's right to privacy.
    • EC Commission: "it should be ensured that individuals remain in control of their personal data and that IoT systems provide sufficient transparency to enable individuals to effectively exercise their data subject rights."
  • Exponential curves:
    • Michio Kaku: there is an upper limit on how much computing power can be squeezed out of silicon. However newer technologies like 3D chimps, optical chips, parallel processing and molecular computing and even quantum computing will likely ensure an exponential growth curve.
    • Hard-disc storage capacity, network capacity. The amount of data transmitted on an optical network is doubling every nine months.
    • Exponential curve in generating information has fundamentally altered the way we live.
  • Renewable energy technology:
    • is experiencing its own exponential growth curve in solar and wind, with geothermal, biomass, and hydro expected to follow.
    • A number of market leaders have gone belly-up in recent years because they were tied into old technologies and were swept away by the speed of innovation.
    • the harvesting technology for solar  and small wind power will be as cheap as cell phones and laptops within 15 years.
  • Energy Internet:
    • Internet telegony and renewable energies are beginning to merge to create an Energy Internet that will change the way we is generated and distributed.
    • the sun beams 470 exa- joules of energy to Earth every 88 minutes -equaling the amount of energy human beings use in a year.
      • If we could grab hold of 0.1% of the sun's energy that reached Earth, it would give us six times the energy we now use across the global economy.
      • Richard Swanson, the founder of Sunpower Corp. observed the price of sola photovoltaic (PV) cells tends to drop by 20% for doubling of industry capacity.
      • In 2012, Germany was already generating 23% of its electricity by renewable energy; expected to generate 35% by 2020.
      • the problem is that during certain times of day, the surge of solar and wind power flooding into the grid is exceeding the demand for electricity, resulting in negative prices.
      • Utilities are having to push back on investing in backup gas and coal fired power plants because they can no longer guarantee a reliable return on their investment.
      • renewable energy is already beginning to push fossil-fuel-powered plants off the grid, even at this early stage of the Third Industrial Revolution.
  • Share Gas:
    • Shales gas will only temporally boost energy production, because each well only taps a single pool of oil in a large reservoir; impossible to maintain production without constant new wells being drilled.
    • shale gas (=light tight oil ) will  peak around 2020, and then plateau, with  production falling by the mid 2020s.
    • fossil fuel energies are never going to approach zero marginal cost, or even come close.

5. 超生産性・IoT・フリーエネルギー:

  • plummet: drop straight down
  • defecate: discharge faeces
  • modus operandi: habits of working




  • 生産性の計算にはエネルギーを無視
  • 87%ものエネルギーロス
  • 今後は、再生可能エネルギーとEVに活路

>Top 6. 3D Printing: from mas production to production by the masses:

  • Communication-Energy-Transportation (CET) matrices of 1st and 2nd Industrial  Revolutions were extremely capital intensive and required vertical integration to achieve economics of scale.
  • >Top 3D Printing: Software directs molten plastic, molten metal inside a printer, to build up a physical product layer by layer.
    • Printers are already producing productions from jewelry and airplane parts to human prostheses.
    • the process as 'infofacture' rather than manufacture.
    • Open source production model: allowing prosumers to share new ideas with on another in DIY hobbyist networks.
    • Traditional factory manufacturing is a subtractive process: raw materials are cut down and winnowed and then assembled to manufacture the final product
    • 3D Printing is additive infofacturing  uses 1/10 of the material of subtractive manufacturing.
    • 3D Printings can print their own spare parts without having to invest in expensive retooling.
  • >Top TIR (Third Industrial Revolution):
    • FIR, favored dense urban centers; factories and logistics networks had to cluster around cities.; the workforce had to live within walking distance of their factories.
    • In SIR, migrated from dense urban centers to suburban industrial parks; accessible from interstate highway; workers traveled longer distanced to work.
    • In TIR: a small 3D printing operation anywhere in the wold; prosumers will make products at home; homes and workplaces will no longer be separated by lengthy commutes.
  • >Top Extreme Productivity:
    • Open-source 3D Printing revolution is an example of extreme productivity; reduce marginal costs to near zero, eliminate profit, and make property exchange in markets; anyone can access the means of production.
    • inspired by SF writers; Star Trek; able to repair and replace parts of the spaceship from machine parts (self-replicating machine) to pharmaceutical products. The replicater was programmed to rearrange subatomic particles that are ubiquitous in the universe into objects, including food and water.
    • the hackers immediately realize the potential of conceiving atoms as the new bits, computing arena into the production of things (PoT).
    • 3D printing community; licensed under both the GPL (General Public Licenses) and CC (Creative Commons)
    • In 2005, Fab Lab is the brainchild of MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld; committing open access, and P2P learning; flexible manufacturing equipment, including laser cutters, routers, 3D printers, in mills, and accompanying OSS. (costs around $50,000)
      • In remoter areas, unconnected to the global supply chain, being able to fabricate even simple tools and objects can greatly improve economic welfare. (Peoples R&D Labo of TIR)
      • a powerful authoritarian government makes 3D printing of physical copies of goods illegal.
    • Xerox's silver ink process; which melts at a lower temperature than plastic, allowing users to print integrated circuits into plastic, fabric, and film; paper-thing PV solar strips could produce solar energy at a ever-diminishing cost.
  • New 3D printers:
    • SDL process: >Fig.
    • Solar Sinter 3d: prints glass objects from sun and sand; successfully tested in the Sahara Deet in 2011, is powered by two PV panels.
    • Filabot: a nifty new device of a size of shoe box that grinds and melts old household items made out of plastic into molten plastic to create plastic filaments stored on a supply for printing.
    • 3D-printed building: already constructed a wall that is 1.5m long, 1m high, 15cm thick; will be dominant industry standard by 2025.
    • Using 3D printing to construct a permanent base on the moon, using lunar soil. (we are used to designing for extreme climate on Earth.)
    • 3D-printed automobile: 3D printing factory can be located anywhere where it can plug into an IoT infrastructure; it can deliver vehicles locally for less expense. The fuel cost for the Urbee (Urban electric) is only $0.02 per mile.
  • >Top Appropriate Technology Movement:
    • inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, later E.F. Schumacher ( wrote Small is beautiful.), Ivan Illich; meaning tools and machines to steward rather than exploit their ecological surroundings, and that could be shared in a collaborative culture.
    • They favored the simple over the complex and technology that could be replicated from scratch using local resources and know-how.
  • Stewart Brand (edited The Whole Earth Catalog):
    • Software revolution: 'On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower all the time.'
    • The contradiction would eventually frame the battle between capitalists and collaboratists as the marginal costs of sharing information approached zero.
    • Now, 3D Printing brings these two pivotal movements together, since it is both extremely high tech and appropriate tech, mostly employed as an open-source technology.
      • The software instructions for printing objects are globally shared rather than privately held, yet the material feedstocks are locally available; the products can be marketed on websites at nearly zero marginal cost.
      • Germany is far ahead of the other major nations in advancing IoT technology for 3D printing to plug into and play; also 35% of its electricity from renewable energy by 2020.
      • German small & medium-sized engineering companies have long been regarded as the best shifting into TIR infrastructure, in the advancement of 3D printing; such as EOS and Concept Laser, both in Bavaria.
    • The goal is to create open-source software that can use locally available feedstock (mainly scrap metal) to print all 50 machines, giving every community a 'global village construction kit' to make its own TIR society.
      • IoT infrastructure provides the means to advance the Gandhian economic vision, lifting hundreds of millions of Indians out of abject poverty and into a sustainable quality of  life.

6. 3Dプリンタ: 大量生産から大衆による生産:

  • prosthesis: 人工器官
  • winnow: find an useful part
  • eclipse: obscure or block out light
  • nodal: 結節点 <node
  • LOM (Laminated Object Manufacturing) process:
    everything is glued together, including the support material around the model with the same intensity.
  • >Top SDL (Selective Deposition Lamination):
    Selective is the most important world; a much higher density of adhesive drops are deposited in the area that will become the part, and a much lower density of adhesive is applied in drops in the surrounding area that will serve as the support.
  • Deposition refers to the method of applying the adhesive in droplets onto a sheet of ordinary paper following the cutting of the profile of the part in that sheet.
  • Lamination describes the process of building up successive layers of a substance and boding them to form a durable finished products; they don't have to be post-processed to make them strong; can use them right out of the printer.




  • Appropriate technology, 適正技術; 中間技術; 低コスト技術

>Top 7. MOOCS and a Zero Marginal Cost Education:

  • Capitalist model of teaching:
    • Students are conditioned to follow command, learn by repetition, and perform efficiently.
    • The teacher was akin to a factory foreman, handing out standardized assignments.
    • Learning is compartmentalized into isolated silos.
    • Education is supposed to be useful and pragmatic.
    • Why of thing si less discussed than low of things.
  • Collaborative Age education:
    • top-down model of instruction gives way to a mor collaborative learning experience.
    • teachers shifts from lectures to facilitator.
    • are encouraged to think more holistically; a premium is placed on inquiry over memorization.
    • students learn together as a cohort in  a shred-knowledge community.
    • knowledge is regarded as the collective meanings we attach to our experiences.
    • more than 117,000 teachers are currently sharing open-source curricula, bringing learning communities together in a borderless global classroom.
  • In US:
    • escalating cost of higher education has created a crisis with millions of students unable to pay for a four-year college degree , cost up to $50,000 a year in elite colleges., and as much as $10,000 per year in public institutions.
    • Knowledge has been enclosed behind the walls of academic institutions whose price of admission excludes all but the wealthiest.
    • The revolution began at Stanford University; offered a free course on AI online in 2011; it commenced 160,000 students in whole world
  •  >Top MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) such as Coursera, edX:
    • The poor in developing countries who otherwise would never have the opportunity to be exposed to learning at this level.
    • Low motivation: MOOCs offered 'a statement of accomplishment' and a grade, that began to offer course credits in 2013.
      • Coursera has formed partnership with ten of the country's largest public university systems to deliver free online courses for credit, making online education available to 1.25M students in public institutions.
    • The problem is, when the best education can be delivered at near zero marginal cost and made near free online, what's to prevent any accredited university from accepting a MOOC's certification for credits for a very small fee so that students can be accredited with a college education?
    • Global Virtual Commons: will become new teaching paradigm for higher education, while brick-and-mortar learning eventually will play an ever more circumscribed and narrow supplementary role.
      • The traditional colleges and universities will increasingly have to accommodate the MOOCs approach to learning and find their place in an ascending Collaborative Commons.

7. 公開オンライン講座とゼロ限界費用教育:

  • pedagogy: method of teaching
  • akin: of similar character
  • cohort: a group of people with a shared character
  • crowdsource: obtain information by enlisting serviced of large number of people
  • exact: demand or obtain from someone
  • paltry: very small
  • circumscribe: restrict within limits


>Top 8. The Last Worker Standing:

  • In 1995; the author wrote The End of Work: is getting a troubling reality; leaving millions of  people unemployed and underemployed.
    • Most economists were so attached to conventional economic theory - that supply creates demand and that new technologies, while disruptive, reduce costs, stimulate consumption, spur more production, increase innovation, and open up opportunities for new kinds of jobs
    • Between 1997-2005; manufacturing output increased by 60% in US, while 3.9M manufacturing jobs were eliminated.
    • In 2007-2009 recession; US GDP was $13.32T, the real output was 2.22% above the recession level in 2007, industry churned out the increase in goods and services with only 142.4M workers, 3.84M fewer workers than in 2007.
      • In early 1960s, the introduction of numerical control technology, which instructs a machine on how to produce or assemble parts into products.
      • the most significant new development in manufacturing technology since Henry Ford's moving assembly line.
      • the first leg in the long process of steadily replacing human labor with computerized technology.
    • Fast-forward 50 years; near workless factories run by computer programs are increasing the norm in SIR manufacturing enterprises.
      • In 1982-2002; US steel production rose form 75M to 120M tons, while the number of steel workers declined from 289K to 74K.
      • In 1995-2002; 22M manufacturing jobs were eliminated in the global economy while global production increased by more than 30% worldwide.
      • Manufacturers hat have long relied on cheap labor in their Chinese production facilities are bringing production back home with advanced robotics that are cheaper and more efficient than heir Chinese workforces.
      • >Top Many chines largest manufacturers are quickly replacing their cheap workers with even cheaper robots.
        • Foxconn (Hónghǎi) that produces iPhones plans to install 1M robots in the next few years. (Light-out production)
    • Ai and White-collar:
      • Automation, robotics, and AI are eliminating human labor as quickly in the white-collar and service industries as in the manufacturing and logistics sectors.
      • eDiscovery: a software that can sift through millions of legal documents, looking for patterns of behavior, lines of thought, etc.
      • IBM's all-knowing Watson; defeated Ken Jennings (held 74 wins on TV show Jeopardy).
    • Translation:
      • the most challenging hurdle is breaking through the language barrier.
      • mediocre translators are literalists, attempting merely to match words and phrases in two different languages.
      • the best translators are artists who are able to live in two different cognitive personas simultaneously.
    • Automation, robotics, and AI are eliminating human labor as quickly in the white-collar and service industries as in the manufacturing and logistics sectors.
    • Even knowledge workers:
      • eDiscovery; is a SW program that can sift through millions of legal documents, looking for patterns of behavior, lines of thought, etc.
      • Using eDiscovery SW, one lawyer can do the work of 500 lawyers with greater accuracy.
    • Language barrier:
      • Comprehending the rich meaning of complex metaphors and phrases in one language and simultaneously retelling the story in another language is perhaps the most difficult of all cognitive tasks and the most unique of all human abilities.
    • In the midst of an epic change:
      • FIR: ended slave and serf labor
      • SIR: dramatically shrank  agricultural and craft labor.
      • TIR: is sunsetting mass wage labor; IT, automation, Big Data, and AI are quickly reducing the marginal labor costs of producing and delivering goods and services.
      • A half century from now, our grandchildren are likely to look back at the era of mass employment with the same sense of utter disbelief as we look upon slavery and serfdom in former times.

8.  最後の労働者の立場:

  • troubling: causing distress
  • churn: move about vigorously
  • fast forward: wind a tape forward rapidly
  • light out: 消灯して急ぎ退散
  • stopgap: a temporary way of means
  • pare: cut off stg


>Top 9. The Ascent of the Prosumer and the Build-out of the Smart Economy:

  • In a Collaborative Commons;
    • sellers and buyers give way to prosumer; property rights make room for OSS sharing; ownership is less important than access; markets are superseded by networks, and the marginal cost of producing information, generating energy, manufacturing products, and teaching students is nearly zero.
    • How we choose to finance a near zero marginal cost society will likely determine the way we organize economic, social, and political life for the remainder of 21C.
  • Natural monopoly:
    • Competing grids for roads, bridges, water and sewage systems, and electricity transmission would be a colossal waste of resources.
    • In US, over half of all federal tax subsidies to to just four industries - finance, utilities, telecom, and oil-gas & pipelines.
      • Between 2008-2010; subsidies $31B went to gas and electric utilities; $30B to telecom, and $24B to oil, gas & pipelines.
      • Those subsidies don't include intellectual-property protection afforded by the government.
    • IoT is the first general purpose technology platform in history; whether the new potential inherent in the IoT infrastructure can be realized will be determined by who finances the platform.
  • Power to the people:
    • The financing of IoT infrastructure is coming not so much from wealthy capitalists or corporate shareholders, but from hundreds of millions of consumers and taxpayers.
    • the Internet; who owns it? Actually, everyone and no one.
  • The Green feed-in tariff:
    • has become the primary tool for advancing distributed renewable energies.
    • Local, regional, and national governments guarantee a premium price above the market value of other energies fora 15-20 years to encourage early adopters to invest.
    • 65 countries have instituted feed-in tariffs, and over half of them are in the developing world.
    • the opportunity of becoming a prosumer has turned the tide toward million s of small business owners and homeowners who are becoming the primary driver of a shift to distributed renewable energies.
  • German Green Energy:
    • the big utility companies (E.ON, RWE, EnBW, Vattenfall Europe) owned only 7% of the renewable energy capacity by 2011.
    • Individuals owned 40%, energy niche players 14%, farmers 11%, energy-intensive industrial companies 9%, and financial companies 11%.
    • Consumers are becoming prosumers and generating their own green electricity.
  • >Top Free WiFi for everyone:
    • IN 2013/2, FCC published a proposal that would create 'super WiFi networks' across America, making wireless connection free for everyone.
      • the unused broadcast frequencies would have a reach of a mile or more, penetrating walls and enclosures.
  • New technologies changing broadcast communications:
    • Smart antennas, Dynamic spectrum access, Cognitive radio technologies, and mesh networks that are expanding the spectrum by using it more efficiently and with greater agility.
    • the new technologies can concentrate a transmitted signal so that it goes only to the user's antenna, avoiding interference with other antennas.
    • they can scan the spectrum, searching for temporarily unused holes to us; the capacity of the radio-frequency spectrum will be multiplied exponential.
  • Networked Commons:
    • IT computing, wireless telecom, and Internet technology are increasingly being deployed to organize and manage information, green energy and electricity, 3D printing of infofactured products, online higher education, social media marketing, and plug-in clean transport and logistics becomes the governing model of IoT.

9. プロシューマの登場とスマート経済の発展:

  • colossal: extremely large
  • derail: cause to leave its tracks accidentally


>Top 10. The Comedy of the Commons:

  • In 1968, Garrett Hardin essayed 'The Tragedy of the Commons':
    • Each herder benefits from grazing as many cows on the pasture as he can. Yet he suffers the negative consequences of a deterioration of the pasture if every other herder attempts to optimize his benefits by similarly grazing as many cows as they can.
    • Hardin was convinced that the only effective way to restore the Earth's deteriorating ecosystems was to impose the heavy hand of centralized government command and control.
  • In 1986, Carol Rose concluded: 'The Comedy of the Commons.'
    • Rose reminded that not everything is amenable to private ownership, such as mountain and rivers, roads and bridges, air are all in the nature of public goods; which is fully controlled by neither government nor private agents.
    • Biotech industry sought to patent the genes of all life. Telecom industry pushed for a sell-off of the electromagnetic spectrum to private sector. Nanotech industry seeks patents on processes for manipulating physical world at the atomic level.
  • >Top Free software movement and free genetics movement:
    • Dual movements shred common philosophical ground with the birth of bioinformatics.
    • Molecular biologists around the world are mapping and sequencing the entire genomes of creatures from bacteria to human beings.
    • Understanding and chronicling all the relationships between genes, tissues, organs, organisms, and external environment is beyond any kind of complex system ever models.
  • Virtual Laboratories:
    • Biologists can create synthetic molecules with a few keystrokes, bypassing the often laborious process of attempting to synthesize a real molecule on the lab bench. With 3D computer models, researchers can ply with various combinations on the screen, connecting different molecules to see how they interact.
    • The new computing language for reorganizing society; info-hackers, bio-hackers, 3D-hackers, and Cleanweb-hackers.
    • While markets aren't altogether dismissed, or governments left entirely out of the equation, the new movements share a passionate belief in the superiority of P2P Commons management as the best governing model to ensure that the benefits of a near zero marginal cost society are realized rather than stymied.

10. コモンズの喜劇

  • stymie: prevent or hinder the progress of
  • Cleanweb: block annoying ads and pop-ups blocking the screen.
  • collaborate: work jointly; or cooperate traitorously


>Top 11. The Collaboratists prepare for battle:

  • Cultural conflict between Collaboratists vs. capitalists: IoT→PoT→DoT (Democratization of Everything)
    • The struggle between prosumer collaboratists and investor capitalists is being the critical economic battle of  first half of 21C.
    • The shift to new communication-energy-transportation matrix of TIR is enabling to be prosumers at near zero marginal costs, disrupting the working of capitalist markets.
    • DoT: set of metaphors; unfolding cultural frame by the Free Culture Movement, the Environmental Movement, and Movement to reclaim the Public Commons.
  • >Top The Free Cultural Movement:
    • Richard M. Stallman: software code was quickly becoming the language of communication between people, and between people and things; all software should be free as in 'free speech, not free beer.'
      • Stallman erected an operating system called GNU or GNU/Linux.
      • Lawrence Lessig coined the apt phrase 'Code is Law.'; called the Internet as remix culture, because of its interconnectivity and interactivity; these mixtures are conversations.
      • Lessig founded Creative Commons in 2001.
      • Eric Raymond used the metaphor of 'the bazaar.'; the Internet as a place where human beings create social capital rather than market capital.
      • GPL (General Public License) became the vehicle for establishment of Commons for the free sharing of software;
        • was dubbed 'copyleft.': allows an author to give every person who receive a copy of a work permission to reproduce, adapt or distribute it and require that any resulting copies are also to be copyleft.
      • Bill Gates viewed free software as theft and Stallman saw it as free speech.
    • Today, GNU/Linux is used in more than 90% of the fastest 500 supercomputers and even runs on tablet and mobile phones.
    • Patents and copyrights thrive in an economy organized around scarcity but are useless in an economy organized around abundance.
  • Globalization vs. Global Commons:
    • In 1999, a mass protest against globalization in Seattle where WTO conference is being held.
      • In 1998, US Congress passed the Copyright Term Extension Act (70 years after the author's death)
      • Clinton signed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), implementing two treaties of WIPO; are referred to as digital rights management (DRM)
      • They were calls for opening up the public square Commons, land Commons, knowledge Commons, virtual Commons, energy Commons, electromagnetic spectrum Commons, Communications Commons, ocean Commons, fresh water Commons, atmosphere Commons, nonprofit Commons, and biosphere Commons,
    • Peter Barnes, Capitalism 3.0 A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons:
      • Capitalism 3.0 would run on two engines: one gears to managing private profit, the other to preserving and enhancing common wealth.
      • While both the capitalist market and the Collaborative Commons will coexist, sometimes synergistically, and at other times competitively or even adversely which of the two management models ultimately prevails as the dominant form and which as the niche player will depend largely on the infrastructure society erects.

11. 協力者は戦いを準備中:

  • nascent: just coming into existence
  • dub: nickname
  • repudiate: reject


>Top 12. The Struggle to Define and Control the Intelligent Infrastructure:

  • Communications Commons will remain elusive if tied to a proprietary infrastructure.
    • Governance of the Internet: including establishing standards and management protocols.
      • the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
      • the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
      • the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
      • All the above organizations are open for anyone to take part in; it is generally people with technical expertise who make decisions by consensus.
    • >Top In 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis, World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Geneva: tripartite governance
      • adopted 'Declaration of Principle':
      • representatives of the three shareholders; by governments, private sector and civil society.
      • In 20the Internet Governance Forum (IGF): formally announced by UN.
    • >Top Network Neutrality:
      • From network users:
        While user pay for Internet connection, and the price they pay can depend on the speed or quality provided the Internet service provider, one they are connected, their transmitted packets are treated the same way as everyone else.
      • From network providers: (major telecom and cable companies)
        would now like to change the rues of the game and secure control of information exchange over the Internet for commercial gain. That control would allow them to charge different prices for access to specific information or to prioritize transmissions, putting time-sensitive packets at the front of the line for a higher price, or charge application fees, or block specific applications from their networks in favor of others, again based on exacting discriminatory payments.
      • The struggle over network neutrality is a battle of paradigms. SIR telecom giants are anxious to gain control of the new communications medium and force on it a centralized command and control to enclose the content and the traffic, boost their margins, and secure a monopoly.
        • End users are equally determined to keep the Internet an open Commons and find new apps that will advance network collaboration and a push to near zero marginal costs and near free services.
        • Governments seem to be in the middle; one dedicated to a capitalist model and the other to a Commons model.
      • In 2010, Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of WWW, issued: The Web allows anyone, anytime, anywhere to share information with anyone else without having to ask for permission or pay a royalty fee. The Web is designed to be open, universally accessible, and distributed.
        • Unfortunately, the biggest application on the Web, Google, Facebook, and Twitter are selling the masses of transmitted Big Data that come their way to commercial bidders and businesses that use it for targeted advertising and marketing campaigns, research efforts, the development of new goods and services. They are exploiting the Commons for commercial ends.
  • Energy Commons:
    • Global energy companies and power utility companies are blocking the creation of an Energy Interne; attempting to force a centralized architecture on the smart grid, to enable the commercial enclosure.
    • EU has taken steps to keep the Energy Internet an open architecture by requiring to unbundle their power generation from their transmission of electricity. Millions of small new energy producers were made it difficult to connect their local micropower plants to the main transmission grid. The companies were accused of discriminatory practices that favored speedy connectivity for green electricity generated by affiliated partners and of imposing bureaucratic delays and even refusing to accept green electricity from others.
    • Electric utilities maneuver to design a smart grid that is centralized, proprietary and closed, in which all transmission data flows only in one direction, from promisors to headquarters. The objective is to withhold vital information from the millions of new promisors on moment-to-moment changes in the price of electricity as well as to prevent them from controlling when to upload their electricity onto the grid.
  • Logistics Commons:
    • A packet of information transmitted over the Internet contains information on both its identity and routing to tis destination.
    • Similarly, with Logistics networks, all physical products would need to be embedded in standardized modular containers that could be transported across all the logistics networks; need to be equipped with smart rags and sensors for identification and sorting.
      • Conventional point-to-point and hub-and spoke transport would give way to distributed, multisegment, intermodal transport.
      • The Transportation Internet has to coordinate logistical flows and balance storage and transport of physical material and goods to prevent traffic congestion and optimize delivery schedules on the roads, rail, waterways, and air corridors.
    • The technology is already available. What's needed is the acceptance of universal standards and protocols and business model to manage a regional, continental, and global logistics system.

12. インテリジェント・インフラの定義と管理を巡る戦い:

  • elusive: difficult to find, catch
  • intermodal: involving two or more different modes of transport
  • IETF: インターネット技術特別調査委員会

>Top 13. The Transformation from Ownership to Access:

  • Auto+mobile:
    • Human nature is driven by the quest for autonomy and mobility.
      • The automobile represents the ultimate enclosure; which represents the ultimate enclosure.
    • Increasing number of young people belong to car-sharing clubs; Zipcar, Chicago's I-Go; or Philly Car Share, City CarShare in San Francisco and HourCar in Minneapolis.
      • 800K people in US belonged to car-sharing services.
      • Car-share members drove 31% less than when they owned a vehicle.
      • Once people car share they tend to change their mobility behavior; increasing bicycling, walking, and use of public transportation.
      • Bike-sharing has taken off over the past five years.
    • Some car enthusiasts worry about the safety of driverless vehicles.
      • But 90% of automobile accidents are caused by human error.
      • Unlike human drivers, automated vehicles don't get distracted, intoxicated, fall asleep at the wheel.
      • In the Collaborative Age, when time is the scarce commodity and attention is at a premium, freeing oneself from driving an automobile several hours a day is significant extra time to attend to more interesting activities in virtual space.

13. 所有からアクセスへの変革:

  • distracted: unable to concentrate
  • intoxicate: cause to lose control


>Top 14. Crowdfunding Social Capital, Democratizing Currency, Humanizing Entrepreneurship, and Rethinking Work:

  • In 2008, near collapse of the global banking system terrified millions of people; enraging that $700B in tax revenue was handed over to banks, while millions of Americans were losing heir homes. (too small to matter)
    • >Top P2P Lending or social landings, or cloudfunding: playing an important supporting role in the creation of many new star-ups.
    • Mosaic used crowdfunding to raise $1.1M for a dozen solar projects; the demand for solar technology is expected to surge in the coming decade.
      • In Germany; 51% owned by small businesses and individuals, while giant utilities own a mere 7% of green energy.
    • Sharing economy is a hybrid creature, part market economy and part social economy.
      • Reputation services on the Internet Commons, similar to credit-rating services in the market economy, are becoming an important mechanism for regulating activity...
    • More and more people began to experiment with a different type of currency:
      • Community currencies, LETS or microcurrencies began to take hold in locales
      • In 2008, more people turned to gold; to prevent wealth from leaking out of the community.
      • Alternative currencies have mushroomed in Greece and Spain, etc hit by the Great Recession.
      • Microcurrencies have become the new mechanism of exchange, putting at least some workers back to work.
      • Bitcoin is tradable with other currencies; the value of using bitcoin to bypass the fee gouging.
  • Benefit Corporation in US:
    • regulated as legal entities in 18 states, offer entrepreneurs a form of legal protection against outside investors who might force them to give up their social or environmental commitments in return for new financing.
    • >Top L3C laws (Low-profit Limited Liability Company): 9 states in US have enacted that allow nonprofits to make a low profit as long as their primary objective is social goals; more oriented to social-entrepreneurial ventures, while retaining their status as charitable organizations.
  • Success for social entrepreneurs:
    • is measure more by the improvement in the well-being of the communities served than on return on investment.
      • Today is rather equally balanced between for-profit and nonprofit businesses; is likely to increasingly gravitate to the latter in the coming decades.
    • >Top IBAR (IT, Big data, AI, Roboics) also replace millions of workers across manufacturing, service industries, and professional works.

14. クラウドファンド, 貨幣の民主化、企業の人道化、労働の再考:

  • enrage: make very angry
  • gouge: overcharge or swindle
  • usury: lending money at very high rates


>Top 15. The Sustainable Cornucopia:

  • Defining abundance:
    • Free implies free in two senses: free in price and free from scarcity.
    • Average human being requires 2000-2500 calories a day to maintain body.
      • Today 2B people live on less than that; and 1B are classified as undernourished.
      • human population expected to increase by 35%, or 2.5B by 2050; FAO says the food production have to increase by 70% to provide nourishment to everybody.
    • Average American consumes 3747 calories a day.
      • If all 7B people were to sustain their lives as the average American, it would require 4-5 more Earths.
      • Human race, rich and poor, is currently gobbling up the equivalent resources of 1.5 Earths.
    • Gandhi's observation; 'Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need but not for every man's greed.'
  • Susceptibility:
    • is defined as the relative steady state in which the use of resources to sustain the human population does not exceed the ability of nature to recycle the waste and replenish the stock.
    • >Top Ecological footprint is a direct measure of the demand human activity puts on the biosphere.
      • In 1961, our species' footprint was approximately half of the planet's biocapacity.
      • By 2008, the ecological footprint of 6.7B people alive was equivalent to 18.2B global hectare, with an average footprint of 2.7 ha per person, on a plant with only 12B global ha of biocapcity available, or 1.8 ha available per person.
        • We are consuming Earth's biocapacity faster than it could be recycled and replenished.
        • US alone, with only 4% of the world's population, was using 21% of Earth's available biocapacity and the ecological footprint of the average American was a whopping 10 ha of biocapacity.
    • What makes us happy:
      • Studies conducted have shown a close correlationship between materialist values, depression, and substance abuse.
      • Materialists are more likely than others to exhibit possessiveness and to be less generous and trusting.
      • individual happiness rises until the average individual income hits about $20,000 per year - the minimum comfort level.
      • Human beings are the most social of creatures. We yearn for companionship and crave social embeddedness.
      • Mirror neurons: several of our primate relatives and elephants have empathy neurons - not just intellectually, but physiologically and emotionally.
        • empathic sensibility is what allows us to respond to one another as an extended self, embedded in a deeply integrated society.
    • Narrow the ecological footprint worldwide:
      • Even if the richest 40% narrows its ecological footprint, it will be of little solace if the poorest 40% increase its numbers and expands its ecological footprint.
      • the key to population stabilazation on Earth is acess to electricity.
        • Electricity allowed young girls, as well as boys, enough time to pursue an education and better their lot in life.
    • A warming planet:
      • past 650K years, CO2 ranged from 180-300 ppm; but 400 ppm in 2013.
      • EU proposed that world CO2 emissions should not exceed 450 ppm by 2050, with the hope of limiting the rise of Earth's temperature to 2ºC.
      • Now 4 years later, the Earth will rust to 4.5ºC rise or more by 2100 - temperature not seen o Earth for millions of years.
      • Each rise of 1ºC results in 7% increase in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere.
        • Thus, more bitter winter snows, more dramatic spring storms and floods, more prolonged summer droughts, more wildfires, more intense hurricanes, melting of the ice caps and rise in sea levels.
        • the power grid, transportation arteries, telecoms, and water and sewage systems that were never designed to withstand the fury of a runaway hydrological cycle.
        • In 2011, the tsunami slammed into Fukushima nuclear plants, resulting meltdown four of six nuclear plants.
        • In France, 43% of all fresh water consume to cool nuclear reactors; in 2009 heat wave across France forced one-third of the nuclear plants to shut down.
    • Climate change and cyberterrorism:
      • humanity faces a formidable threat to its security and an equally challenging opportunity pass into a more sustainable and equitable post-carbon era.
        • Turning the threat to an opportunity will require more than a workable economic plan.

15. 再生可能な豊穣:

  • cornucopia: abundant supply of good things
  • gobble: use large amount quickly
  • replenish: fill up again
  • whop: heavy blow
  • susbstance abuse: 薬物乱用


>Top 17. A Biosphere Lifestyle:

  • By mid-21C; the Collaborative Commons increasingly becoming dominant; and the capitalist economy settling into a more supplementary role.
  • Homo Empathicus:
    • Empathic sensibility: 'Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.'
  • Connecting every thing with every being (IoT) is a transformation event in human history, allowing our species to empathize and socialize as a single extended human family for the first time in history.
    • The transformation is being accompanied by a change in the human psyche - the leap to biosphere consciousness and the Collaborative Age.

16. 生物圏のライフスタイル:


>Top 16. Afterword:

  • the Collaborative Commons offer the best vehicle to heal the planet and advance a sustainable economy of abundance.
    • Entrepreneurs are artists of the marketplace, continually in search of creative new commercial narratives that can capture an audience, tell a compelling story, and bring people into the universe they've invented.
    • The new spirit is more interactive, more committed to promoting quality of life, more accumulating social capital, more desirous of accessing and sharing, and more dedicated to sustainability and stewardship of the Earth's ecology; human journey form an economy of scarcity to an economy of sustainable abundance.
    • the Capitalist system who fear an approaching society of nearly zero marginal cost will spell their own ruin. Economics are never static; continuously evolve and occasionally metamorphose into entirely new forms.
      • Average life span of a Fortune 500 Company is only around 30 years; only 71 companies appear in the Fortune 500 list in 1955 were still on the list in 2012.
      • During the long transition, may FIR industries withered and died - but not all; that survived reinvented themselves along the way and found the right balancing act in two industrial eras.
      • Many SIR companies are faced with a comparably opportunity and a choice; some are already making the leap into TIR, incorporating the new business models and developing transitional strategies to keep pace with the paradigm shift into a hybrid economy.

16. あとがき:

  • 資本主義は変化のシステム
  • FIR→SIR→TIRの変化の時代に、一部の産業は、自己変革しながら生き残る。


  • This book describes the transfor from CC (privately owened Copyright) to CC (Collaborative Commons).
  • 本書はCC (私的所有権)からCC(協同的コモンズ)を記述している。

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