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Inside The Tornado

Cat: ICT
Pub: 1999
#: 9903a

Geoffrey A. Moore, founder of The Chasm Group


Inside The Tornado


  • Marketing strategies from Silicon Valley's cutting edge
  • シリコンバレー先進企業の
  1. Crossing the chasm
  2. New or Established Market or Product Positioning:
  • Geoffrey A. Moore, chairman & founder of The Chasm Group
  • ジェフリー・ムーア
    The Chasm Groupの創始者・会長
  • 'Animal Firm' in high-tech industries are described as;"Microsoft' s underlying strategy began to emerge;
    1. No one can beat a gorilla on its own turf, but
    2. Netscape's turf has to ride on top of our turf, the Windows OS, so
    3. Let's incorporate the browser into Windows and thereby
    4. Defeat the gorilla by dissolving its turf.
  • ハイテク分野でのパワーゲームが進行中である。
    1. 誰もゴリラには、ゴリラの芝生上で勝てない。
    2. ネットスケープの芝生はウィンドウズOSの上に載っている。
    3. ウィンドウズにブラウザを組み込もう。
    4. ゴリラの芝生を分解することでゴリラをやっつけよう。

> Top 1. Crossing the Chasm - and beyond:

  • Truly discontinuous innovations are new products or services that require the end user and the marketplace to dramatically change their past behavior.
  • We labeled each of the five constituencies as follows:
  • Innovators = Technology enthusiasts:
    These are people who are fundamentally committed to new technology on the grounds that it is bound to improve our lives. Moreover, they take pleasure in mastering its intricacies, and they love to get their hands on the latest and greatest innovation. And thus they are typically the first customers for anything that is truly brand-new.
    From a marketing point of view, particularly in B2B sales, there is really only one drawback to techies: they don't have any money. What they have instead is influence. They are the gatekeepers to the rest of the life cycle.
  • Early Adopters = Visionaries:
    These are the true revolutionaries in business and government who want to use the discontinuity of any innovation to make a break with the past and start an entirely new future. They can achieve a dramatic and insurmountable competitive advantage over the old order.
    Visionaries have an extraordinary influence on high tech because they are the first constituency who can and will bring real money to the table. And because they tend to love the limelight, they also help publicize the new innovation, giving it a necessary boost to succeed in the early market.

1. カズム(隔たりの溝)を越えて:

  • 真に不連続な革新とは、エンドユーザや市場が求める新製品や新サービスがユーザの過去の行動を劇的に変化させる。
  • 以下、5種類の顧客に分類できる。
  • 革新者(=技術熱狂者): これらの人々は基本的に新技術に対し、彼らの生活の改善を約束してくれるという理由で前向きである。さらにその複雑なことに習熟する喜びを感じており、最新の素晴らしい発明を手に入れることが大好きである。こうして彼らは真に最新のものに対する最初の顧客となる。
  • 初期導入者(=空想家): これらは過去を壊して創造的な不連続を起こし、全く新しい未来を開始しようとする企業や政府にとって真の革命家である。彼は古い秩序に対する劇的かつ圧倒的な競争優位を実現できる。空想家はハイテクに対し異常なほどの影響力がある。それは彼らが真の金を持ってくることのできる最初の顧客であるからだ。また彼らは脚光を浴びることを好み、新たな革新を広めるに当たって初期市場で成功する支援者となるからである。
  • > Top
  • Early Majority = Pragmatists:
    These people make the bulk of all technology infrastructure purchasers. They do not love technology for its own sake. Moreover, they believe in evolution not revolution, so they are not visionaries, either - indeed they shy away from them.
    Pragmatists are the people most likely to be in charge of a company's mission-critical systems. They know this infrastructure is only marginally stable, and they are careful to protect it from novel intrusions. As such, they prove to be a tough nut to crack when the time comes for them to underwrite shifting to the new paradigm.
    When they finally do make this shift, pragmatists prefer to buy from the market leader.
  • Late Majority = Conservatives:
    These customers are pessimistic about their ability to gain any value from technology investments. They are very price-sensitive, highly skeptical, and very demanding. Conservatives nonetheless represent a largely untapped opportunity for high-tech products.
    The key to winning their business and profiting is to simplify and commoditize systems to the point where they just work.
  • Laggards = Skeptics:
    These are the gadflies of high tech, the ones who delight in challenging the hype and puffery of high-tech marketing. They are not so much potential customers as ever-present critics. As such, the goal of high-tech marketing is not to sell to them but rather to sell around them.
  • 初期大衆(=現実派)
  • 遅延大衆(=保守派)
  • 落伍者(=懐疑主義者)
  • > Top
  • Introducing the Chasm:
    Specially, companies kept stumbling every time it came to making the transition from the visionaries to the pragmatists. The differences between these two groups is to contract the way they use the phrase "I see." When visionaries say "I see," they do so with their eyes closed. That's how visionaries see. Pragmatists like to see with their eyes open. They don't trust people who want to navigate using the force. In short, visionaries think pragmatists are pedestrian, and pragmatist think visionaries are dangerous.
    • The idea of the chasm is a simple one. It says that whenever truly innovative high-tech products are first brought to market, they will initially enjoy a warm welcome in an early market but then will fall into a chasm, during which sales will falter and often plummet.
      If the products can successfully cross this chasm, they will gain acceptance within a mainstream market.
  • Crossing the Chasm:
    The high-tech enterprise, sensing it was in the chasm, and realizing that the customer needed more than just the bare product itself. Instead, it would target four or five likely candidate segments with the idea of focussing intensively on whichever opportunity caught fire first. This decision was followed by a round of customer visits with major customers from each of the target segments, during which "wish lists" of requirements were painstakingly extracted and recorded.
    • Unfortunately, however, it had everything for nobody. That is, no one group ever got 100% of its whole product requirements fulfilled. We never finished any one customer's list. But that is precisely the requirement that pragmatists insist upon before they purchase. The key to a winning strategy is to identify a single beachhead of pragmatist customers in a mainstream market segment and to accelerate the formation of 100% of their whole product. The goal is to win a niche foothold in the mainstream as quickly as possible - that is what is meant by crossing the chasm.
  • 隔たりの溝(カズム)の導入:
    • カズムの考えは単純である。それは、真に革新的なハイテク製品が市場に登場すると、まず初期市場では歓迎されるものの、まもなくカズムに落ち込み販売は伸び悩み、しばしば落ち込んでいく。
  • カズムの溝の克服:
    • 残念ながら、すべての人向けの製品は誰にも満足を与えない。つまりどのグループも当該製品から100%の満足を得られないということである。我々は一つの顧客リストを完成させることなどできないのだ。しかし現実派が購入時に求めることは正確な要求である。勝利の鍵は、主流の市場で現実派の顧客を捉える拠点を特定し、彼ら向けの商品を100%作ることを急ぐべきである。主流へのニッチな足掛かりをできる限り早く確保することが肝要で、そうすればすなわちカズムを克服できるのである。
  • > Top
  • Beyond the Chasm:
    Inside the Tornado is focused on mapping the marketplace beyond the chasm. It focuses on three subsequent stages in the life-cycle model.
    1. The Early Market:
      a time of great excitement when customers are technology enthusiasts and visionaries.
    2. The Chasm:
      a time of great despair, when the early-market's interest wanes.
    3. The Bowling Alley:
      a period of niche-based adoption in advance of the general marketplace.
    4. The Tornado:
      a period of mass-market adoption, the general marketplace switches over to the new infrastructure paradigm.
    5. Main Street:
      a period of aftermarket development, when the base infrastructure has been deployed and the goal now is to flesh out its potential.
    6. End of Life:
      which can come all too soon in high tech because of the semiconductor engine driving price/performance to unheard of levels, enabling wholly new paradigms to come to market.
  • カズムの溝を越えて:
    1. 初期市場:
    2. カズムの溝:
    3. ボーリングレーン:
    4. 竜巻:
    5. 大通り:
    6. 製品ライフの終焉:

> Top 2. New or Established Market or Product Positioning:





Old Guard:



Established Product

New Product
  • This grid of products and markets, established vs. new, is normally used to organize strategic entry and investment decisions. But the same forces that impact those decisions impact positioning as well, so it is also useful to represent the fundamental power roles in a free market, as follows:
  • The Old Guard:
  • In the lower-left quadrant, established markets are dominated by established products from the Old Guard. This is a hierarchy of companies, the pecking order set by market share...
  • The Gorilla is a dictator whether benevolent or cruel.
  • The Chimpanzee is a candidate for gorilla but were not selected. This means you are a perpetual threat to the gorilla and a ready target for monkeys.
  • The Monkey is a low-cost supplier who is easiest to do business with. When confronted for a fight, run immediately for the highest tree. Then, when the attacker gets bored and goes away, come back down and continue to do business.
  • The Explorer is a walk-on in the drama of the marketplace, interesting for the information he may dig up, but otherwise a blank unless motivated by immediate profits.
  • The Forty-niner is the one that most differentiates high tech from other markets. This leader mush paint a picture of the future so vividly that otherwise prudent people forsake their current security in favor of this new quest.

2. 製品対市場、既存対新規の分類:

  • 上図のように、製品対市場、既存対新規の分類は、通常、戦略的な新規参入や投資意思決定の際よく用いられる手法である。しかしそれらの意思決定の影響する同じ力学がそれぞれのポジションに影響する。従って自由市場においては、基本的なパワーの役割を以下のように表現するのは役に立つ。
  • 守旧派」は左下の枠内で、守旧派の製品によって支配された確定市場存在する。これは、市場シェアによって秩序づけれた階層構造を示す。
  • ゴリラ」とは、寛大が残酷かは別にして市場の支配者である。
  • チンパンジー」は、ゴリラとなり得る候補者ではあるが、まだ支配者となっていない。このことは、ゴリラにとっていつも潜在的な脅威でもあり、また以下「モンキー」の目標ともなっている。
  • モンキー」は、低価格で安直に市場参入している供給者である。市場競争となると真っ先に高い木の上に逃げ出す。その後、攻撃者が退屈になり去ってしまうと、再び下へ降りてきてビジネスを続ける。
  • 探検家」は、市場のドラマチックな場面で登場し、自分が掘り起こせそうな情報を持つものの、即利がない限り他には関心すら示さない。
  • フォーティ・ナイナー」(1849年の米国西海岸のゴールドラッシュに押し寄せた人)は、他の市場でのハイテクに優れた人物である。このリーダは、将来の絵をいかにも生き生きと描くので、他の慎重な人達も現状に安穏をあきらめ新たな挑戦に参加することになる。
  • > Top
  • The Imperialist extends the market for their established products into new territory; geographical expansion, or porting to a new computing platform, or deeper vertical market penetration. The assumption is that the existing infrastructure, or natives, serving these new markets will have nothing in its armament to counter the new technology you bring.
  • The Native is the mirror opposite of the imperialist. Instead of having the new technology, you have the existing relationships, and you can choose either to support or resist the imperialist's arrival, depending on which is more to your advantage.
  • The Barbarian is the most aggressive role in the marketplace because once you embark upon it, there is no retreat. The most successful strategy is not to declare war at all but instead to work the edges of the established market, eroding it away bit by bit.
  • The Citizen's strategy is not to counterattack but rather to fight a war of attrition over the issue of completing the whole product. Positioning yourself as a spokesperson for the Old Guard, you declare the utmost respect for the new technology but express reservations over its lack of a complete solution for your marketplace.
    Since the barbarians must play on your turf, you can set up any number of these hurdles for them to jump over, consuming time and resources and discouraging their allies.
    At the same time, see what you can do to foment rebellion back in the invader's home market, working with disaffected chimpanzees to undercut the gorilla barbarians power base.
  • 帝国主義者」は、彼らの確立した商品を新天地に拡販する。即ち、地理的な拡大、新たなコンピュータプラットフォームへの移植、バーティカル市場への更なる浸透である。
  • 原住民」は帝国主義者の正反対の存在でる。即ち、新たな技術を持たない代わりに、既存の関係を維持しつつ、帝国主義者の侵入を支援するのか抵抗するのかどちらが有利かによって選択が分かれることとなる。
  • 野蛮人」は市場において最も先鋭な役割を演じる。即ち、乗り込めはもはや退却はあり得ないからである。最善の戦略は、宣戦布告を行わずに、確立した市場の周辺で仕掛けて、少しづつ蚕食していくのが良い。
  • 市民」の戦略としては、逆襲路線は取らずに、むしろ製品全体に競合する点で消耗戦を闘うことにある。守旧派のスポークスマンになる場合には、新技術に最大限敬意を払うことを宣言しつつも、市場においては必ずしも全面的なソリューションとしては不足の点も留保するのが望ましい。
  • This book accurately describes vivid high-tech marketplace dynamics using unique expression of caricature.
  • この本は、ハイテクの市場動向をユニークな戯画的な表現を使って分析している。

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