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Guns, Germs and Steel

Cat: HIS
Pub: 1997
#: 2018b

Jared Diamond


Guns, Germs and Steel


  1. Preface: Why Is World History Like An Onion?:
  2. Up to the Starting Line:
  3. A Natural Experiment of History:
  4. Collision at Cajamarca:
  5. Farmer Power:
  6. History's Haves and Have-Nots:
  7. To Farm or Not to Farm:
  8. How to Make An Almond:
  9. Apples or Indians:
  10. Zebras, Unhappy Marriages, and the Anna Karenina Principle:
  11. Spacious Skies and Tilted Axes:
  12. Lethal Gift of Livestock:
  13. Blueprints and Borrowed Letters:
  14. Necessity's Mother:
  15. From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy:
  16. Yali's People:
  17. How China became Chinese:
  18. Speedboat to Polynesia:
  19. Hemispheres Colliding:
  20. How Africa Became Black:
  21. Who are the Japanese?:
  22. Epilogue: The Future of Human History As A Science:
  1. 序文: 世界史は玉ねぎ状か:
  2. 出発点に立つまで:
  3. 歴史にみる自然の実験:
  4. インカCajamarcaの闘い:
  5. 農民の力:
  6. 歴史上の持つ者と持たざる者:
  7. 耕すか耕さないか:
  8. アーモンドをどう作るか:
  9. アップルかインディアンか:
  10. ゼブラ、不幸な結婚、アンナカレーニナの原則:
  11. 広大な空と傾いた軸:
  12. 家畜の致命傷的ギフト:
  13. 設計図と借りた文字:
  14. 必要性の母:
  15. 平等主義から収奪政治まで:
  16. Yaliの人々:
  17. 中国はいかに中国になったか:
  18. ポリネシアへのスピードボート:
  19. 半球間の衝突:
  20. いかにアフリカは黒くなったのか:
  21. 日本人とは何者か:
  22. 後記: 科学としての人類歴史の未来:
; 1500AD; 1700s guns; Afroasiatic languages; Anna Karenina principle; Atahuallpa; Austronesian; Auto-catalytic process; Double outrigger; Emmer wheat; Fertile Crescent; Five leading crops; Four categories of societies; Genes for resistance; Germs; Grafting; High in protein; invention of pottery; Jomon culture; Major Five domestication; Minor Nine; Niger-Congo languages; Open to innovation; Plant domestication; Size & taste; Social structure; Sumerian cuneiform; Unhappy marriage; Writing ability; Writing invetion; Yayoi culture; ; ;
  • On 2020/4/6 Declaration of a state of emergency due to coronavirus (Covid-19) was announced by the Japanese government, requiring nations to avoid unnecessary going out.
  • This theme of this book will be the best reading during evacuation period.
  • 本書のこのテーマは、ウイルスでの外出自粛期間に読む本として最適だと思う。

>Top 0. Prologue: Why Is World History Like An Onion?:

  • This book provides a short history of 13,000 years:
    • Much more space gets devoted to the history of western Eurasia than of eastern Eurasia history.
    • Before 3,000BC, brief treatment, though it constitutes 99.9% of human history.
    • Why western Eurasian societies became disproportionately powerful and innovative?
    • World history constitutes only the surface; whose layers are to be peeled back in the search for historical understanding; created reverberations.


: なぜ世界史は玉ねぎのようなのか?

  • incipient: beginning to develop
  • deosyncratice: peculiar or individual
  • mandate: 委任統治
  • insatiable: impossible to satisfy
  • decimate: kill, destroy, 1/10減
  • reverberation: 反響、残音
  • 西ユーラシア大陸の過去13千年の人類の歴史。なぜその地域が強力だったのか。
  • 世界史は表面だけでなく、その内部の歴史も残音として残っている。

>Top Prologue: Yali's Question:

  • In 1972, Yale: a politician in New Guinea; quizzed lots of whites.
    • Whites had arrived, imposed centralized government, and brought material goods (from steel axes, matches, and medicines to closing)
    • Many of the white colonialists despised New Guineans as primitive.
    • Yali's question: 'Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?'
  • 11,000BC, all people on all continents were still hunter-gatherers.
  • >Top 1500AD were the immediate cause of the modern world's inequalities.
    • Most of Eurasia, much of Americas and sub-Saharan Africa gradually developed agriculture, herding, metallurgy, and complex political organization.
    • why did human development proceeded at such a different rates on different continents?
      • The history of interactions among disparate peoples is what shaped the modern world through conquest, epidemics, and genocide.
      • 6,000 surviving languages are becoming replaced by English, Chinese, Russian, and a few other languages.
  • Rise of civilization convey the false impression that civilization is good; tribal hunter-gatherers are miserable.
    • European became considered genetically more intelligent than Aboriginal Australians; now publicly repudiate racism.
      • Aborigines had been living as tribal hunter-gathers without melt for 40,000 years.
      • modern 'Stone Age' peoples are on the average probably more intelligent, not less intelligent, than industrialized people.
  • Infectious epidemic diseases of dense populations (such as smallpox) were historically the major cause of death, while murders were relatively uncommon and a state of war was exceptional.
    • Today, most live-born Western infants survive fatal infections as well and reproduce themselves.
    • Cold climates require one to be more technologically inventive to survive (warm home, warm clothing, sit indoors and invent)
    • Northern people were likely to receive advances (agriculture, wheels, writing, and metallurgy) developed in warmer parts of Eurasia.
    • large-scale irrigation systems were developed in lowland river valleys in dry climates.
  • Collisions between different continents:
    • Francisco Pizarro captured Athuallpa of Inca Emperor by his tiny band of conquistadores; by Spanish germs, horses, ships, and weapons..
  • Food production:
    • differing rates of spread turns out according to the continents' axes; predominantly west-east for Eurasia, and north-south for Americas and Africa.
    • non-Eurasian peoples were killed by Eurasian germs than by Eurasian guns or steel weapons.
  • There are broad patterns to history; the search for their explanation is as productive as fascinating.


  • reverberation: resonance
  • futile: incapable of producing any useful result
  • ephemeral: lasting for a very short time
  • homicide: murder
  • innate: <into+be born; inboran
  • vestige: trace, 痕跡
  • repudiate: reject
  • loathsome: causing hatred
  • discern: recognize, distinguish
  • alert: quick to notice, think clearly
  • adept: more skillful
  • wind up: act of concluding or fininishing
  • inihibitory: prventing an action
  • scrutiny: criticl observation or examination
  • end up with: 結末をつける
  • New Gunia政治家 Yaliの疑問
    • 白人が急にやってきて文明を変えた。
  • 11,000BCは全て狩猟生活だった。
  • 1500AB: 世界の不平等の始まり
    • 農業、牧畜、冶金、政治組織


  • 異なる大陸間の闘い:
  • インカ:Athuallpa, Inca Emperor
  • スペイン:germs, horses, ships, weapons
    • 文字と情報の格差も決定的

>Top 1. Up to the Starting Line:

  • 11,000BC; the end of Pleistocene Era and last Ice Age.
  • 7ma (range 5-9ma): began human history, as separated from the history of animals (gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo).
  • 500ka: in Europe; Homo sapiens, instead of Homo erectus.
    • sufficiently similar to skulls of us, Homo sapiens.
    • Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens.
    • Neanderthals: had brains slightly larger than ours.
      • the first humans to leave evidence of burying their dead.
      • their stone tools were still crude.
      • Neanderthals penetrated no farther north than northern Germany and Kiev.
  • 50ka:
    • Great Leap Forward:
    • CroMagnons: standardized stone tools, preserved jewelry, abundant artifacts
    • garbage heaps: tools of bone (fishhooks, awl, harpoons, spear-thrower, engraving tool)
    • artworks: Lascaux Cave: cave paintings, statues, musical instruments
  • 40-30ka:
    • in Australia/New Guineas
      • Diprotodon (L:3.3m, W: 2.8t); giant wombat, the largest marsupial
      • all megafauna (Moa, etc) disappeared after the arrival of humans.
  • 20ka:
    • didn't colonized Siberia until 20ka;
    • by 11ka; America's big mammals became extinct at the end of the last Ice Age.
      • Americas' big animals had survived in 22 previous Ice Ages; why they pic the 23rd Ice Age to expire.
  • 12ka:
    • Clovis sites, New Mexico: America's first colonization by people
      • reached Patagonia in 1000 years.
      • only 100 people with 1.1% increase has reached the 10M people in 1000 years.

1. 出発点に立つまで:

  • gloss: try to conceal, disguise
  • refutation: prove to be wrong
  • skeletal: <skeleton
  • repertoire: types of behavior
  • succumb: fail to resist pressure
  • fathom: understand difficult things
  • 更新世末; 最後の補湯がき
  • 7ma: 人類の歴史の始まり
  • 500ka:
    • Homo erectus→Homo sapiensへ
    • Neanderthasl
  • 20ka: シベリア植民開始
  • 12ka:
    • クロービス文化(アメリカ先住民)
    • 1000年でPatagoniaへ到達
  • The spread of humans:


>Top 2. A Natural Experiment of History:

  • In 1835; Maori (Polynesian islands)-Moriori (Chathams) collision; Maori invaders, while Moriori were a small population of hunter-gatherers.
    • Modern Maori are descendants of Polynesian farmers.
    • Hunter-gatherer could not produce crop surpluses to support nonhunting specialists or armies, or strong leadership; capable only 2000 population.
  • food production led to the proximate causes of germs, literacy, technology, and centralized government.
    • mysterious microbe through intercourse with sheep; most of us platonically love our pet animals.
    • major killers of humanity; smallpox, flu, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, measles and cholera.
  • Norther part of NZ, was suitable for Polynesian agriculture.
    • Maori increased dense population of 100,000.; they fed craft specialists, chiefs and part-time soldiers.
    • Environment affected economy, technology, political organization and fighting skills.
  • Enviromental and Geological types:
    • coral atolls, raised limestone, volcanic islandsl lack permanent fresh water.
      • Atolls had the simplest, most egalitgarian societies.
    • NZ: geologically diverse, continental fragment of Gondwanaland; commercially exploitable iron, coal, gold, and jade.
    • volcanic islands differ:
      • generate rain in the mountains; permanet stream; have rich soil
      • surrounded by shallow water & reefs;
        • absence of reefs: much less productive of seafool.
    • Hawaiian Archipelago; where social complexity reated its peak.
      • Chiefly lineages membeers dis not intermarry with commones.
      • Political complexity was greated on Tonga and Hawaii.
    • Dependent on:
      • Polynesian, S-Ameria on Au, Ag
      • Eurasian, African on Fe.
    • Length of history:
      • Polinesian: only 3,200 years, while Continents, 13,000 years of societies

2. 歴史にみる自然の実験:

  • scoundrel: a dishonest person
  • anisakiasis: アニサキス症
  • inoculate: 予防接種する
  • pertussis: 百日咳
  • rabies: 狂犬病
  • frenzy: 狂乱
  • prodigious: remarkabley great
  • teem: full of swarming <team
  • ran the gamut of A: Aの全てを含む
  • coalesce: 合体、合併する
  • 13千年間: いかに自然環境が歴史を作ってきたか
  • 1835: Maori〜Moriori衝突: Maoriの侵略
  • Polynesian islands:


  • サンゴ礁の地質: 隆起石灰岩で真水なし
  • 一方、NZは多様な地質。
    • 通年の水流、豊かな土壌、
    • 周辺は浅い海とサンゴ礁
    • コンドワナ大陸の破片
    • 鉄・金・石炭・翡翠

>Top 3. Collision at Cajamarca:

  • around 11,000BC:
    • the New world was initially colonized by way of the Bering Strait and Siberia: complex agricultural societies gradually arose in the Americas far to the south.
    • 1492: Christopher Columbus's 'discovery' of Caribbean islands densely populated by Native Americans.
  • >Top 1532: Cajamarca, Peruvian highland town; Inca emperor Atahuallpa encountered conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
    • Pizarro, leading 168 Spanish soldiers, ignorant of the local inhabitants; crushed 500 times more numerous Native Americans.
    • Pizarro captured Atahuallpa; history's largest ransom gold to fill a room 22 ft by 17 ft with 8 ft height.
      • Atahuallpa was revered as a sun-god, even ordered from captivity.
      • Atahuallpa's capture and executed in Cajamarca; the decisive moment in the greatest collision of modern history.
      • Pizarro: was joy to the faithful to Catholic Imperial Majesty (holy Catholic Faith), and terror to the infidels
      • So few against so many: 200-300 men conquered more territory than ever been known before.
      • guns played only a minor role; steel swords, lances, daggers slaughtered quilted armored Indians.
      • horses leaps out of the eyewitness accounts.
    • After Atahuallpa's execution, the Spanish forces were mor formidable.
    • Imbalances of equipment: steel armor, guns, and horses vs. stone, bronze, wooden clubs, hand axes, quilted armor.
      • Those tribes that reduced the military disparity by acquiring and mastering both horses and guns.
      • Horses and rifles were brought by Europeans and proceed to transform the Indian societies that acquired them.
        • the Plains Indians of North America, the Araucanian Indians of southern Chile, and the Pampas Indians of Argentina fought off invading whites.
        • Later, Native Americans able to resist European conquest for many centuries were those tribes who acquired and master both horses and guns.
      • >Top By 1700s, guns replaced swords as the main weapon.
      • 1536 Inca rebellion in Lima: Quizo Yupanqi, general of Inca emperor Manco, who succeeded Atahuallpa, besieged the Spaniards in Lima.
    • Warfare by horses: domesticated around 4000BC in north of the Black Sea; remained potent for 6000 years until early 20C.
      • WWI cavalry finally ended.
  • Epidemic of smallpox:
    • spread after Spanish settlers in Panama and Colombia
    • around 1526; had killed the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac, and then his designated heir Nina Cuyuchi.
    • smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, bubonic plague in Europe played a decisive role in European conquest.
      • 1520; smallpox epidemic devastated the Aztecs after the failure of the first Spanish attack; killing estimated 95% of pre-Columbian Native American population
      • 1730; smallpox epidemic destructed South African native San people by European settlers.
      • 1788: soon after British settlement of Sydney, the epidemics decimated Aboriginal Australians.
      • 1806: epidemic in Fiji by a few European sailors from the wreck of the ship Argo; similar epidemics marked in Tonga, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands.
    • Malaria, yellow fever, other disease of tropical Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and New Guinea furnished obstacles to European colonization.
    • Maritime technology: Pizarro came across the Atlantic from Spain to Panama, then in the Pacific to Peru.
    • European centralized political organization that enabled to finance, build, staff, and equip the ships.
      • Inca bureaucracy was so strongly identified with its godlike absolute monarch.
    • >Top Existence of writing: difference of information power
      • Spain possessed it, while the Inca Empire did not.
      • information from Columbus's voyages and from Cortés's conquest of Mexico sent Spaniards pouring into the New World, including sailing directions.
      • 1534/4: Pizarro's report was printed in Sevilla, 9 months after Atahuallpa's execution.
        • why did Atahuallpa walk into the trap?
        • Atahuallpa had little information about the Spaniards, their military power and their intent; an envoy to Atahuallpa that they were not fighting men.
        • the ability to write was confined to small elites.
        • Atahuallpa had no way of understanding that Pizarro's men formed the spearhead of a forced bent on permanent conquest, rather than an isolated raid.
        • miscalculations by Atahuallpa, Chalcuchima (Atahuallpa's general), Montezuma (Aztec Emperor), and countless other Native American leaders deceived by Europeans were due to the fact that no living inhabitants of the New World had been to the Old World; had no specific information about the Spaniards.
        • literacy made the Spaniards heirs to a huge body of knowledge about human behavior and history; Pizarro explicitly modeled his ambush of Atahuallpa on the successful strategy of Cortés.

3. インカ Cajamarcaの闘い:

  • revere: 崇敬する
  • fortitued: 忍耐、不屈の精神
  • vassal: 臣民、配下
  • infidels: 異教徒 =heatherns
  • befall: happen
  • prolixity: 冗長
  • stud: 散りばめる
  • sentry duty: 見張り番
  • cavalry:騎兵
  • livery: 衣服
  • suffocate: 窒息死させる
  • subjugate: 服従させる
  • paddle: 櫂で進む
  • ambush: 待ち伏せ
  • besiege: 包囲する
  • preciptate: 促進、陥らす
  • bubonic plague: 腺ペスト
  • devastate: 壊滅させる
  • causation: 因果関係
  • Francisco Pizarro: (c1471-1541):
    • Spanish conquistador.
    • capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa at the battle of Cajamarca in 1532/11.
    • A ransom filled a room (7×5×2.4m) with gold, but Pizarro executed by garrote in 1533/8/29.
    • Pizarro ( with 500 Spaniards) entered the Inca capital of Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru in 1535/11/15.
    • Pizarro later founded Lima in 1934/4.
    • Atahualpa's wife, 10-year-old Cuxirimay Ocillo Yupanqui was taken to Cuzco following his execution and given the name Dona Angelina. She had borne Pizarro two sons Juan and Francisco.
    • In 1541/6/26, armed supporters of Diego de Almagro stormed Pizarro's palace and assassinated him.
    • Much of the local population was reduced to serfdom.
    • In 2003, Pizarro's stature was removed from Lima to a park, facing Rímac River and the Government Palace.
  • 武器バランスの圧倒的差
    • 後に、Native Americansも馬と銃で武装
    • 1700年代には銃が主要武器に
    • (Cf: 日本は、種子島に鉄砲伝来(1543)以来、
    • Pizarroは、鉄砲は持参したが象徴的意味のみ
  • 馬: 4000BC 黒海北岸で家畜化
    • その後6000年間、20C初頭まで軍馬として活躍
    • 騎兵隊: 見張り、情報伝達速度
  • 防具:
    • スペイン側は、鉄製鎧
    • インカ側は、キルト製軽装; 鉄の刀には無防備
  • 伝染病:
    • 天然痘、麻疹、インフルエンザ、チフス、腺ペストは、南米征服に有利に働いた。
    • コロンブス以前の先住民の95%が伝染病で死亡
    • 1520: 天然痘 in Aztecs
    • 1730: 天然痘 in 南ア
    • 1788: 天然痘 in Sydney
    • 1806: 伝染病 in Fiji, Tonga, Hawaiiなど
    • 逆に、マラリア、黄熱病などは欧州によるアフリカ、インド、東南アジア、ニューギニア征服の障害になった。
  • スペインの中央集権と造船技術
    • 大西洋横断; Spain-Panama-Peru
    • 派遣隊を送る資金力、人材供給が可能。
    • かつキリスト教布教の情熱
  • 文字情報: 情報力の差
    • スペインはコロンブス以降の新大陸情報を熟知
    • 1542/4 IncaのAtahullpaの処刑の9ヶ月後には、Pizarroの報告書がSevillaで出版されベストセラーとなる。
    • 一方、新大陸側は、旧大陸に関する情報は皆無
    • また文字知識は一部のエリートに限定
    • インカの官僚制度の欠陥
    • 南米ほか地域でのスペイン侵略者の情報伝達がなかった。
    • その結果、スペイン側の意図、戦術、装備などについて無知; 次々と騙され、失敗を重ねる。
    • スペインの南米侵略の意図、宗教的使命感など全く無知で想像外。

>Top 4. Farmer Power:

  • last 10,000 years: food production started; domesticating wild animals and plants.
    • today, most people consume food that was produced for them.
    • food production was indirectly a prerequisite for guns, germs, and steel.
    • which food production led to all the advantages that enabled Pizarro to capture Atahuallpa
    • more consumable calories means more people; 10-100 times more than hunter-gatherers; many military advantages.
    • by selecting and growing few species of plant, so that they constitute 90% rather than 0.1% of the biomass.
    • livestock fed more people by furnishing meat, milk, fertilizer and by pulling plows.
      • farming of the tough sods had to await 19C European animal-drawn plows.
    • sedentary lifestyle: shorted birth interval 2 years
      • a hunter-gatherer mother can carry only one child; birth interval about 4 years.
    • stored food: essential for feeding non-food-producing specialists.
      • nascent chiefdom: right of taxation
      • religious justification for wars of conquest
    • indirect value of crops and livestock:
      • fiber crops: flax and hemp;
      • domestic animals; cow hides used to make leather. and silkworms
      • silkworm: origin China
    • domestic mammals; became our main means of land transport until 19C.
      • can carry heavy goods in large quantities.
      • were ridden: horse, donkey, yak, reindeer, Arabian & Bactrian camels, and llama
      • were hitched: cows and horses; reindeer and dogs
      • military role: horses
        • essential military ingredient behind the westward expansion of Indo-European languages; replaced all earlier western European languages except Basque.
        • 13-14C: Huns and Mongol conquests of much of Asia & Russia by horses.
        • around 1800BC: horses-drawn battle chariots were invented
        • 1674BC: Hyksos conquered then horseless Egypt.
    • >Top Germs: evolved in human societies with domestic animals.
      • infection diseases like smallpox, measles, flue arouse as specialized germs of humans.
        • the humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victims.
        • immune people: then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases.
        • epidemics resulted 99% of previously unexposed population was killed.
          • European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.
          • China, India, other east Asian were immune people?

4. 農民の力:

  • squander: 浪費する
  • sober: しらふで
  • binge: 暴食
  • poignant: 辛辣な
  • edible: eatable
  • tedious: 退屈
  • larva, larvae: 幼虫
  • game: 攻撃目標、狩猟の肉
  • venison:鹿肉
  • reindeer: トナカイ
  • Bactrian camel: フタコブ駱駝
  • manure: 堆肥
  • sedentary: 定住性 ⇔migratoryv
  • sod: 芝
  • flax: 亜麻 Cf. linen=cloth woven from flx
  • hemp: 麻 strong fabrics used for rope, paper
  • stirrup: あぶみ馬具
  • gungermsteel.gif
  • 農業→定住化→備蓄→専門家
  • 農業→多産化→人口増→軍事力増大
  • 農業→階級社会→首長・祭司→征服の正当化
  • 家畜化→農業生産力増強
  • 馬の活用→高速移動・運搬手段→軍事力強化
  • 家畜化の副産物→伝染病→免疫獲得→非免疫の

>Top 5. History's Haves and Have-Nots:

  • Much of human history has consisted of unequal conflicts between the haves and the have-nots.
    • archaeological site can be calculated by C14/C12 ratio. (C14: half-life: 5730 years)
      • Radioactive dating until 1980x required relatively large amounts of carbon (a few grams)
      • for calibration: uses tree's annual growth rings; to obtain an absolute calendar date.
    • Around 8500BC, emmer wheat: came from the Fertile Crescent, reaching Greek 6500BC, and Germany around 5000BC.
      • the same plant or animal was domesticated independently at several different sites.
      • cattle were domesticated independently in India and western Eurasia, within 10,000 years.
  • Food production arose independently, with domestication of many indigenous crops, and animals.: nine candidates areas for independent evolution of food production.
  • >Top Around 8500BC, Southwest Asia has the earliest for both plant domestication and animal domestication.
    1. 8500BC: Southwest Asia; Fertile Crescent: domesticated wheat, pea, olive; and sheep, goat
    2. 7500BC: China's Yellow River valley and Yangtze River valley; domesticated rice, millet, and pig, silkworm.
    3. 7000BC: Indus Valley: sesame, eggplant; humped cattle
    4. 7000BC: New Guinea: sugar cane, banana
    5. 6000BC: Egypt: sycamore fig, chufa; donkey, cat
    6. 6000-3500BC: Western Europe: poppy, oat
    7. 5000BC: Sahel: sorghum, African rice; guinea fowl
    8. 3500BC: Mesoamerica; corn, beans, squash, and turkey
    9. 3500BC: Andes and Amazonia; potato, manioc; and llama, guinea pig
    10. 3000BC: Tropical West Africa: African yams, oil palm
    11. ?: Ethiopia: coffee, teff
    12. 2500BC: Eastern US: sunflower, goosefoot
  • California, Argentine pampas, Australia, Siberia: those hunter-gatherers were killed, infected, driven out, or largely replace by arriving European farmers and herders who brought their own crops.
  • The people of areas with a head start on food production thereby gained a head start on the path leading toward guns, germs, and steel. The result was a long series of collisions between the haves and the have-nots of history.

5. 歴史上の持つ者と持たざる者:

  • cataclysmic: すざまじい
  • Sahel: 砂漠周縁部の草原地帯
  • scimitar: 三日月刀
  • chickpeas: ハコベ
  • emmer wheat: エンマー小麦
  • sedentary: 定住性
  • squash: ウリ科; カボチャ、ズッキーニ
  • manioc: キャッサバ、タピオカノキ
  • teff: 茶に似たもの
  • sycamore fig: エジプトイチジク
  • chufa: 食用カヤツリ
  • yam: イモ
  • sorghum: スイートソルガム
  • goosefoot: アカザ
  • outbreed: breed from parents not closely related, 異系交配する,
  • head start: 競争での有利なスタート
  • aerate: 空気を通す
  • Radiocarbon dating:
    ${}_{\;6}^{14}C\longrightarrow {}_{\;7}^{14}N+e^{-}+\bar{\nu}_e$
  • 57,300年前の資料は、C14は大気の1/1024

>Top 6. To Farm or Not to Farm:

  • Formerly, all people on earth were hunter-gatherers.
    • Why did even people of the Fertile Crescent wait until 8500BC.
    • Hunter-gatherers have to work hard for the quest for food, often to be close to starvation, to lack soft best and adequate clothing, and to die young.
  • Some modern nomads make clearings in the jungle, plant bananas and papayas, go off for a few months as hunter-gaherers, return to check on their crops, weed the garden, set off again to hunt, return months later to check again, and settle down for a while to harvest.
    • It took thousands of years to shift from complete dependence on wild foods.
    • they seek to minimize their risk of starving: moderate but reliable returns are preferable to a fluctuating lifestyle.
    • farmers have tended to despise hunter-gatherers as primitive, hunter-gathers have despised farmers as ignorant, and herders have despised both.
  • In SW of Europe (Southern France, Spain, Italy): where sheep arrived first and cereals later.
    • southern Sweden adopted farming from SW Asia, but abandoned it around 2700BC and reverted to hunting-gathering for 400 years.
    • food production and hunting-gatherings as alternative strategies competing each other.
  • Mexican Indians developed more productive crop: trinity of corn, squash, and beans
  • Predominant result: shift from hunting-gathering to food production. Why?
    • decline in the availability of wild foods; become less abundant or even disappeared; and rise of animal domestication
    • plant domestication more rewarding; due to climate changes
    • technological development for collecting, processing and storing wild foods; after 11,000BC in the Fertile Crescent; such as flint blade, basket, grinding slab, roasting grains without sprouting
    • around 8500BC: transition to food production in the Fertile Crescent.
    • human population density and rise in food production; autocatalytic process; become sedentary, and could shorten the birth spacing.
  • Fate of hunter-gatherers:
    • displaced by neighboring food producers, or they survived only by adopting food production themselves.
    • exceptions: they were confined to areas not fit for food production, especially deserts and Arctic regions.

6. 耕すか、耕さないか:

  • tuber: 塊茎 (じゃがいもなど)
  • aerae:空気を通す
  • incipient:初期の
  • crave: 切望する
  • forage: search widely for food
  • larder: 食料貯蔵室
  • despise: 軽蔑する, feel cotempt
  • squash: ウリ科植物
  • disentangle: free from entangled situation, もつれをほぐす
  • porpoise: 小さな鯨
  • precursor: 先駆者
  • tipping point: point at which small changes becomes to cause larger change, 転換点
  • autocatalytic process: 自触媒作用; positve feedback cycle
  • sedentary: 定住性の⇔migratory
  • 狩猟採集と農耕定住生活とは明確な区分なし
    • 狩猟採集は徐々に衰退
    • 獲物の減少
    • 定住化による人口増加
    • 家畜化進展
  • 11,000BC頃、農業、家畜技術進歩あり
    • 研磨石器
    • 臼の発明

>Top 7. How to Make An Almond:

  • 10,000 years ago: plant domestication:
    • how did certain wild plants get turned into crops?
    • poisonous wild almonds; of which a few dozen contain enough cyanide.
    • they plant many different seeds or roots, select the best progeny and plant their seeds, apply knowledge of genetics to develop good varieties.
    • latrines (as well as spittoons and garbage dumps) where we accidentally sow the seeds of wild plants that we eat.
  • >Top Size and tastiness (and fleshy, seedless, oily seeds, and long fibers) are obvious criteria by which hunter-gatherers select wild plants. (fruit size, bitterness, fleshiness, and oiliness, and fiber length)
    • almonds left in Tutankhamen tomb, c1325BC.
    • Lima beans, watermelons, potatoes, eggplants, and cabbages whose ancestors were bitter or poisonous.
    • around 4000BC; olives (as well as sesame, mustard, poppies, and flax) cultivated for their oil.
      • modern planters done the same for sunflower, safflower, and cotton.
      • the fibers (lint) are hairs on the cotton seeds.
      • around 7000BC; flax furnished linen; remained the chief textile of Europe until cotton and synthetics.
      • the cycle of sow, grow, harvest, sow would have selected immediately and unconsciously for the mutants.
  • Kinds of plant domestication:
    • 10,000BC; the Fertile Crescent crops; wheat, barley and peas domesticated.
    • 4,000BC; next stage of crop development; nut trees, olives, figs, dates, pomegranates, and grapes; yield until at least three years after planting.
      • possible only for people already fully settled village life.
    • cutting have the advantage; all its decedents would remain identical to it.
    • >Top difficult technique of grafting; apples, pears, plums, and cherries; developed in China long after the beginnings of agriculture.
    • cereals today account for over half of all calories; five leading crops, wheat corn, rice, barley, and sorghum
    • pulse: 25% protein, soybeans 38%
    • By Roman times, almost all of today's leading crops were being cultivated.
  • Why have we failed or take so long to domesticate such food source:
    • acorns of oak tree: their slow growth would exhaust the patience of farmers. (for a decade or more)
    • strawberries and raspberries: half of the nuts would be nonbitter in the case of almonds, but all would still be bitter in the case of oaks.
    • Darwin "On the Origin of Species: the first chapter accounts how our domesticated plants and animals arose through artificial selection by humans.

7. いかにアーモンドを作ったか:

  • inedible: not fit for eating
  • progeny: descendant
  • pecan: ペカン, クルミ科
  • latrine: 野営トイレ
  • safflower: 紅花
  • lint: 綿くず
  • germinate: begin to grow
  • till: prepare & cultivate for crops
  • hermaphrodie: 雌雄同体, stamenns & pistils =dioecious
  • pollinate: convey pollen to
  • oblivion: 壊滅状態
  • graft: 接ぎ木
  • cutting: 挿し木
  • turnip: カブ
  • sorghum: サトウモロコシ
  • pulse: 豆類
  • acorn: どんぐり
  • 植物の栽培化
  • 10,000BC; 小麦、大麦、豆
  • 4,000BC; 亜麻、ナッツ、オリーブ、イチジク、デーツ、イチジク、ぶどう
  • 挿し木
  • 接ぎ木; 林檎、梨、プラム、梅
  • どんぐりはなぜ食用化しなかったのか、一方、
    • 成長期間の差
    • 変異の程度
  • 種の起源: 冒頭に、食用化された動植物は、人間によって家畜化された。

>Top 8. Apples or Indians:

  • Why did agriculture develop much earlier?
    • due to the unavailability of suitable wild species, rather than to local people.
    • of 200,000 wild plant species, only 2-3,000 are eaten by humans. (1% or so), and just a 200-300 have been domesticated. (0.1%)
    • block-busters are; wheat, corn, rice, barley, and sorghum, soybean, potato, manioc, and sweet potato, sugar beet, banana.
    • ancient peoples have explored all useful wild plants and domesticated.
  • Some area succeeded domestication:
    • >Top the Fertile Crescent: the earliest center of food production in the world.
      • Advantage: Mediterranean climate of mild, wet winters and long, hot, dry summers; plat species able to survive long dry season and to resume growth rapidly upon the return of rains.
      • annual cereals and pulses: mere one year of life; less energy into producing big seeds.
      • ancestors were already abundant and highly productive; and already settle down in permanent villages.
      • hermaphroditic selfers: high percentage of the wild flora were reproductive
    • Africa's Sahel zone: sorghum
    • Wester Europe and North Africa: flax
    • Easter Mediterranean; dry-summer wet-winter climate: olive, grape, fig, date palm
      • extended westward through southern Europe and northwestern Africa.
      • similar Mediterranean climates: typically wester sides of continents.
        • California, Chile, SW Australia, South Africa
      • Western Eurasia has the largest Mediterranean climate zone with a high diversity of wild plants and animals.
    • >Top Two major crops in the Fertile Crescent: chosen by seed size, palatability and abundance; being perennial rather than annual plants, evolved slowly under domestication.
      • Barley: has the second biggest seeds; evolve quickly the useful changes in seed dispersal and germination inhibition.
      • Emmer wheat: has the biggest seeds; can be gathered more efficiently than barley, its seeds do not adhere to husks.
  • New Guinea, the largest island after Greenland.
    • People lived fro at least 40,000 years.
    • around 7000BVC, agriculture started.
    • all the landmasses surrounding New Guinea were still occupied by hunter-gatherers.
    • no cereal crops were domesticated in New Guinea; its emphasis on root and tree crops.
      • Taro consists of 1% protein, protein-deficient diet in the highlands;
      • much worse than white rice, while wheats (8-14%) and pulses (20-25%)
      • ultimate reason why cannibalism were widespread.
      • South American origin sweet potato reached New Guinea by way of the Philippines, introduced by Spaniards; causing highland population explosion
    • domestic animals are pig, chicken, and dog.
  • >Top Eastern US:
    • around 2500-1500BC; local species of squash, sunflower, daisy relative called sumpweed, a distant relative of spinach called goosefoot.
    • Native Americans; depend mainly on wild foods, wild mammals, waterbirds, fish, shellfish, and nuts.; farming a par to their diet.
    • all seven crops were high in protein (17-32%) compare with wheat (8-14%), corn (9%), and ever lower barley and white rice.
    • sumpweed (32% protein and 45% oil)
    • around AD1100, Mexican trinity arrived; corn, beans, and squash reached; triggered a larger population boom (Mississippian florescence)
    • Native Americans domesticated no locally available wild pulse, no fiber crop, no fruit or nut tree.
      • no domesticated animals except for dogs.
  • >Top Hundreds of competing societies:
    • some societies are more open to innovation, and some are more resistant.
    • the ones that do adopt new crops, livestock, or technology may be enabled to nourish themselves better and to outbreed, displace, conquer, or kill off societies resisting innovation.
  • Apple: the most difficult fruit trees to cultivate and among the last major ones to be domesticated in Eurasia; requires difficult technique of grafting.
    • there is no evidence for large-scale cultivation of apples even in the Fertile Crescent and in Europe until classical Greek times.

8. アップルかインディアンか:

  • sorghum: モロコシシロップ
  • hermaphroditic selfer: 雌雄同株自殖体
  • emmeer wheat or hulled wheat: エンマー小麦
  • cannibalism: eating flesh of own species
  • squash: ウリ科植物
  • pulse: 豆類
  • pecan: くるみ
  • sumpweed: 油性澱粉質の種子
  • goosefoot: ほうれん草の一種
  • hayfever: 花粉症
  • graft: 接ぎ木
  • munch: かじる
  • sorghum: サトウモロコシ
  • The Fertile Crescent:
  • fertilecrescent.gif


  • 特徴的な3地域:
  • メソポタミア地域
    • 多様な農業先導で、最新農業技術獲得
    • 多様な家畜化
    • 人口増加→都市化→複雑な政治組織
    • 伝染病感染→免疫獲得
  • ニューギニア
    • 現地作物農業のみ
    • フィリピン経由さつまいも導入以降、人口増加
  • 東部北米 (Native American)
    • 現地作物農業のみ
    • ウリ、ヒマワリ、ほうれん草の一種
    • 狩猟採集に依存; 哺乳類、水鳥、魚、貝、豆



  • 各種民族の中で、新たな作物、家畜化のinnovationにオープンな民族と抵抗する民族
    • 前者は、人口的に後者を圧倒し駆逐する。
  • アップル: 農業作物として最後に登場
    • 接ぎ木技術必要

>Top 9. Zebras, unhappy marriages, and the Anna Karenina Principle:

  • Domesticable animals are all alike; every undomesticable animal is undomesticable in its own way; just like "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its ow way (Anna Karenina)"
    • Success actually requires avoiding many separate possible cause of failure.
      • zebras and peccaries have never been domesticated.
    • >Top domestic mammals provided meat, milk, fertilizer, land transport, leather, military assault vehicles, plow traction, and wool, as well as germs that killed previously unexposed peoples.
      • cats were domesticated in North Africa and SW Asia.
      • insect; Eurasia's honeybee and China's silkworm moth.
      • Major Five of mammal domestication; cow, sheep, goat, pig, and horse.
        • domesticated animals different in various ways from their wild ancestors.
      • Miner Nine: Arabian camel, Bactrian (two-humped) camel, Llama & alpaca, Donkey, Reindeer, Water buffalo, Yak, Bali cattle, Mithan
        • many species changed in size; some have smaller brains and less developed sense organs (they no longer need the bigger brains and more developed sense organs)
        • wild ancestors of 13 our to 14, and including all of the Major Five were confined to Eurasia (including North Africa); very unequal distribution.
        • most of America's big wild mammals became extinct about 13,000 years ago.
    • among culturally diverse native people of Australia, Americas, and Africa, no universal cultural taboo stood in the way of animal domestication
    • diet: typically to grow 1,000 pounds of carnivore, you have to feed it 10,000 pounds of herbivore grown on 100,000 pounds of corn.
      • to breed cheetahs in captivity failed.
    • zebra: have unpleasant habit to biting a person; are virtually impossible to lasso with a rope, with unfailing ability to watch the rope noose fly toward them and to duck their head out of the way.
    • nervous species are difficult go keep in captivity.
    • >Top social structure is ideal for domestication; herds of sheep, goats, cows, and ancestral dogs have a similar hierarchy; they instinctively follow a dominant leader.
  • Humans and most animal species make an unhappy marriage, the animal's diet, growth rate, mating habits disposition, tendency to panic, and several distinct feature of social organization.; only a small percentage of wild mammal species ended up in happy marriage with humans.
    • "Many are called, but few are chosen." (Saint Matthew)

9. ゼブラ - 不幸な結婚、アンナ・カレーニナの原則

  • peccary: ヘソイノシシ
  • rodent: 齧歯類, ねずみ
  • ferret: 白イタチ
  • mithan: ヒマラヤの牛、ミタン
  • auroch: オーロックス、ヨーロッパ野牛
  • eland: カモシカ
  • finicky: 凝り性の
  • vicuña: ラマの一種
  • onager: ロバ
  • irascible: 短気な
  • lasso: 投げ縄
  • herd: 群れ
  • foal: 馬の子
  • mouflon: 野生の羊
  • すべての家畜は似ている。家畜化できない動物は様々である。
  • 主要な家畜5種類:
    • 牛、羊、ヤギ、豚、馬
  • 次の家畜9種類:
    • アラビア駱駝、フタコブ駱駝、リャマ・アルパカ、ロバ、トナカイ、水牛、ヤク、バリ牛、ミタン
  • 人間と動物とは、食物、成長速度、交尾、パニックの傾向、社会組織の特徴などの違いで、家畜化はうまくいかないのがほとんど。ごくわずかの種だけが家畜化の関係がうまくいく。

>Top 10. Spacious skies and tilted axes:

  • The map of the world
    • Spread of crops and livestock
      • also of writing, wheels, and other inventions.
      • rapid spread along EW axes; SW Asia both west to Europe and Egypt and east to the Indus Valley (about 0.7 miles per year)
      • slow speed spread along NS axes, less than 0.5 miles per year
    • Astonishing failure:
      • Most of SW Asia's crops and livestock spread west to Europe and east to the Indus Valley.
      • Neither of the Andes' domestic mammals (lama, alpaca, guinea pig) ever reached Mesoamerica in pre-Columbian times.
  • Plant domestication:
    • whether the crop was developed in just one area or else independently in several areas
      • lima beans and chili peppers; were domesticated on at least two separate occasions, once in Mesoamerica and once in South America.
      • the crop spread too slowly to preempt its domestication elsewhere.
    • Spread of Fertile Crescent crops across western Eurasia:
      • before 800BC: centrifugal wave of it appeared in Western Eurasia and North Africa.
      • 6500BC: the wave reached Greece and Cyprus and India
      • 6000BC: Egypt (Nile Valley has similar environment to the Fertile Crescent); spectacular site of Egyptian civilization
      • 5400BC: Central Europe
      • 5200BC: Southern Spain
      • 3500BC: Britain
      • uncertain date: penetrated southward to Ethiopia
      • soon followed by that of other innovations: wheel, writing, metalworking techniques, milking, fruit trees, and beer and wine production
      • most of the Fertile Crescent's founder crops were never domesticated again elsewhere after their initial domestication in the Fertile Crescent.
  • Why the spread of crops from the Fertile Crescent so rapid?
    • east-west axis of Eurasia; share the same day length and seasonal variation
    • also tend to share similar diseases, regimes of temperature and rainfall, habitats or biomes.
      • germination, growth, and disease resistance of plants are adapted to precisely features of climate.
      • seasonal changes of day length, temperature, and rainfall
        constitute signals that stimulate seeds to germinate, seedlings to grow, and mature plants to develop flowers, seeds, and frit.
      • Mexico's mild climate, but in Canada the plant's being killed by autumn frosts before it had produced any mature corn cobs.
      • the plant would lack genes for resistance to diseases of northern climate, while carrying genes for resistance to diseases of southern climates.
    • animals too are adapted to latitude features of climate.
    • can't stand cold northern winters with their short days and characteristic germs, while others can't stand hot tropical climates with their own characteristic diseases.
  • Typical American fast-food restrant; geographic mishmash
    • chicken (domesticated in China), potatoes (from Andes), corn (from Mexico), seasoned with black pepper (from India), coffee (of Ethiopian origin)
  • 1600 years in South China:
    • the Fertile Crescent package eastward spread and subtropical package (banana, taro, yam), and domestic animals (chicken, pig, dog) was assemble.
  • Africa's north-south axis:
    • the Fertile Crescent crops reached Egypt very quickly and then spread south as the cool highlands of Ethiopia.
    • was stopped or slowed by climate and disease (trypanosomes disease carried by tsetse flies)
    • the horse never became established farther south than West Africa's kingdoms north of the equator.
  • Africa and Amerias are two largest landmasses with north-south axis and resulting slow diffusion, even only 1200 miles apart.
    • Mexico and the Andes (mere 700 miles distance) would similarly have been suitable for many of each other's crops and domestic anmals.
    • But other crops (than Mexican corn) and domestic animals failed to spread.
  • Factors of intervening:
    • the northward spread of those Andean specialties was stopped by the hot intervening lowlands of Central America.
    • Even between US SE and US SW was very slow;
      • because much of the intervening area of Texas, southern Great Plains was dry and unsuitable for agriculture.
    • Between India and China:
      • Central Asian desert, Tibetan plateau, and Himalayas.
      • 2000BC, West Asian wheat, barley, and horses reached China.
    • Between Indonesia and SW Australia;
      • diffusion much shorter from Mexico to US SW and SE, because intervening areas were deserts hostile to agriculture.
  • Diffusion of technologies:
    • around 3000BC, the invention of the wheel in SW Asia spread rapidly west and east across much of Eurasia within a few centuries.
    • whereas the wheels invented independently in prehistoric Mexico never spread south to the Andes.
    • by 1500BC, Alphabetic writing: spread west to Carthage, and east to India within a thousand years.
    • but, Mesoamerican writing systems flourished at least 2000 years never reached the Andes.
    • both wheel as transport and writing system served for complex food producing societies. (royal propaganda, goods inventories, and record keeping)
  • Faster spread of Eurasian agriculture played a role in the more rapid diffusion of Eurasian writing, metallurgy, technology, and empires.

10. 広大な空と傾いた軸:

  • mesoamerica: Central Americs
  • preempt: take action in order to prevent happpening.
  • habitat: 原生地
  • biome: 生物群系
  • cob: 穂軸
  • citrus: 柑橘類
  • trypanosome: トリパノソーマ, 鞭毛虫
  • Carthage: カルタゴ
  • 大陸の地図
    • Eurasia大陸のみが東西の軸に広い。
      • 文字、車輪、その他の発明の地理的広がり
      • 銃、病原菌、鉄鋼の伝播も同じ
      • 穀物、家畜、これらの成長方法の伝播や移民による移動
        • 伝播速度は様々 0.2 - 1km/year
  • 穀物の伝播
    • 穀物は特定の場所で進化したか、またはいくつかの場所で独立に進化したか
    • 肥沃の三日月地域発祥で各地に急速に伝播
    • その後の発明品も同様に伝播
      • 車輪
      • 文字
      • 冶金技術
      • 搾乳
      • ビアとワイン製造
  • 同じ気候帯に属するEurasiaの東西伝播は容易
    • 発芽、結実の時期
    • 同じ緯度帯での病気への抵抗力
    • 現在の米国ファーストフード食材の原産:
      チキン(中国); ポテト(アンデス); コーン(メキシコ); 黒胡椒(インド); コーヒー(エチオピア)


  • ユーラシア大陸は東西軸に長く、伝搬は早い
    • アフリカ大陸と南北アメリカ大陸は南北軸に長いので、生物の伝播は遅い。
      • メキシコの温暖気候の作物は、カナダの秋の霜で生育しない。
      • 温度差に抵抗できる遺伝子が欠損
    • 動物も気候への病気適応の点では同様

  • 伝播の障害要因:
    • アフリカ南北間:
    • メキシコ中南米・南米アンデス間:
    • 米国SE部・米国SW部間:
      農業に適さないテキサス州の乾燥したGreat Plain
    • 中・印間:
      • 2000BC : 西アジアの小麦・大麦・馬が中国に到来
    • インドネシア・南西豪州間:
      • メキシコ・南西米国間よりは短期間で伝播

  • 伝播の技術:
    • 3000BC: 南西アジアの車輪は、急速にユーラシア大陸の東西の数世紀で伝播
    • 一方、メキシコ発明の車輪は、南米アンデスには伝播せず
    • 1500BC: アルファベット文字; 西はカルタゴ、東はインドまで数千年で伝播
    • しかし2000年間栄えた中南米の文字は、南米アンデスに伝播せず
    • 車輪と文字は、複雑な作物生産には必須 (宣伝・備蓄・記録)
    • ユーラシアでの迅速な農業伝播は、同時に文字・冶金・技術・帝国の早期の伝播に寄与


>Top 11. Lethal Gift of Livestock:

  • Food production arose at unequal rates from there to others.
    • Ten naked farmers would have an advantage over one naked hunter-gather in a fight.
    • Food production led to the proximate causes of germs, literacy, technology, and centralized government.
    • Some pick up infectious diseases form our pets; smallpox, flue, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, measles, and cholera are from disease of animals.
    • Diseases have been the biggest killers of people.; Until WWII more victims of war died of war-borne microbes than of battle wounds.
  • Native American victims of the Spanish conquistadores were far outnumbered by the victims of murderous Spanish microbes.
    • animal origins of human disease lie behind the human history.
    • AIDS; evolved from a virus resident in wild African monkeys.
    • why should microbes evolve so as to kill us (its host)?
      • how efficiently the microbe is transferred from one victim to the next.
      • hitchhike in the saliva of an insect that bites the old host.
  • >Top In an epidemic those people with genes for resistance to that particular microbe are more likely to survive than are people lacking such genes.; (sickle-cell gene)
    • microbes evolved to feed on the nutrients within our own bodies.
    • many germs have had to evolve tricks to let them spread between potential victims. (as symptoms of disease)
    • epidemic diseases produce no cases for a long time, then a whole wave of cases, then no more cases again for a while.
      • 1346-52: Black Death (bubonic plague) killed the 1/4 of Europe's population
      • 1991: Peruvian epidemic being the first one to reach the New World.
      • 1919-20: Spanish flu infected 500M people worldwide, killed 21M people.
  • Vaccination: to stimulate our antibody production without our having to go through the actual experience of the disease.
    • Constant evolution or recycling of new strain of flu, with differing antigens.
    • In an epidemic, people worth genes for resistance to that particular microbe are more likely to survive.
    • microbes evolved to feed on the nutrients within our own bodies; many germs have had to evolve tricks to let them spread between potential victims.
  • epidemic diseases produce no cases for a long time, then a whole wave of cases, then no more cases again for a while.
    1. First, spread quickly to nearby healthy people; whole population gets exposed.
    2. Second, they are acute illness within a short time, either die or recover completely.
    3. Third, fortunate who recovered develop antibodies that leave us immune against a recurrence of the disease for a long time.
    • Faeroese in 1781; a severe epidemic of measles and then died out; until an infected carpenter arrived from Denmark in 1846. Within 3 months, almost the whole Faeroese population (7,782) had gotten measles and then either died or recovered.

11. 家畜という恐ろしい贈り物:

  • carnal: relting to sexual needs
  • decimation: killing of large proportion of a group
  • butonic plague:
  • hookworm: 十二指腸虫
  • schistosome: 住血吸虫
  • burrow: 隠れ場
  • excrete: 排泄
  • feces: 糞
  • blunder: stupid mistake
  • stammer: say sth with difficulty
  • measles: 麻疹
  • fetus: 胎児
  • venereal: relating sexual intercourse
  • syphilis: 梅毒
  • sicke: 鎌形
  • measles: 麻疹
  • mumps: おたふくかぜ
  • pertussis: 百日咳
  • putative: 想像上の
  • emmer wheat: エンマー小麦
  • hump: 背中のこぶ
  • 少量生産の伝播は非対称的
    • 食料と共に、伝染病、読み書き、技術、中央政府も伝播
    • 動物の家畜化と共に、各伝染病も伝播
    • 伝染病による死亡は、戦死者より多い
  • アメリカ先住民: スペインによる征服以上に、伝染病感染による犠牲者多い
    • 生物由来の病気
    • AIDS: アフリカ猿由来
    • 昆虫媒介の伝染病
  • 伝染病抗体のある人の生存率有利
    • 伝染病: 感染拡大期間がある
    • 1346-52: 黒死病、欧州人口の1/4死亡
    • 1991: ペルー発祥コレラ感染
    • 1919-20: スペイン風邪; 5億人感染、21百万人死亡
  • ワクチン:
    • 新型インフルエンザ毎にウイルスは進化
    • 人々による抗体獲得
    • 感染繰り返す内に、変異
  • 伝染病: 一気に感染拡大、
    1. 早期に周辺に感染: 全人口対象
    2. 短期間に急性化で死亡または完全回復
    3. 幸いにも抗体獲得者は、長期間その病気に対する免疫効果持続
    • 1781の麻疹感染の事例

>Top 12. Blueprints and Borrowed Letter:

  • Knowledge brings power:
    • Writing as the sharpest distinction raising theme above barbarians or savages.
    • writing brings power to modern societies, making to transmit knowledge with far accuracy from more distant lands and more remote times.
    • European conquests of Americas, Siberia, and Australia illustrate the typical outcome.
    • Writing marched together with weapons, microbes, and central government as a modern agent of conquest.
      • the fleets set their courses by maps and written sailing directions by previous expeditions.
      • among island empires, why did writing arise in Minoan Crete?
    • Most peoples employed alphabet:
      • a unique sign (a letter) for each basic sound (a phoneme)
      • English transcribes about 40 phonemes with a 26 letter, such as sh and th, by a single letter in Russian and Greek alphabets. (phonogram)
      • logograms, meaning that one written sign stands for a whole word; Chinese writing, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Maya glyphs, and Sumerian cuneiform (ideogram)
      • Chinese writing is not purely logographic, nor is English writing purely adiabatic.
  • >Top Inventing a writing system:
    1. how to decompose a continuous utterance into speech units (word, syllable, or phoneme)
    2. to recognize the same sound or speech unit through all our normal variations in speech volume, pitch, speed, emphasis, phrase grouping, idiosyncrasies of pronunciation.
    3. to decide that a writing system should ignore all of that variation.
    4. to devise ways to represent sounds by symbols
    • Writing was never developed or even adopted by hunter-gatherer societies.
      • because they lacked both the institutional uses of writing and no mechanism for food surpluses required to feed scribes.
      • Writing arose independently only in the Fertile Crescent, Mexico, and probably China.
      • food production was a necessary condition for evolution of writing, but not a sufficient condition; such as:
        • AD1520, the Inca Empire of South America, Tonga, Hawaii, subequatorial Africa and sub-Saharan West Africa, native North American societies.
        • Had they been located nearer to Sumer, Mexico, and China, they might instead have acquired writing system, just as did India, the Maya.
        • humans are slowed by ecological and water barriers.
        • the history of writing illustrates strikingly the similar ways in which geography and ecology influence the spread of human inventions.
    • Independent inventions:
      Sumerian and early Mexicans happened to have been the first to evolve writings in the Old World and the New World.
      • >Top before 3000BC: Sumerians cuneiform of Mesopotamia
        • using clay tablets
        • writing be organized in horizontal rows
        • from left to right; the lines be read from top to bottom.
        • first, writing signs were recognizable pictures of the object (fish or bird), but became more abstract when the writing tools were replaced by reed styluses.
        • resulting ambiguity was resolved by determinative, rebus
        • like a mere telegraphic shorthand; 'John 27 fat sheep' (probably meaning we order John to deliver 27 fat sheep that he owes to the government.'
        • Iliad and Odyssey were composed and transmitted by nonliterate bards for nonliterate listeners.
      • 3000BC: Egyptian writing:
      • 1300BC: Chinese writing:
        • earliest Chinese scribes could have had knowledge of any other writing system to inspire them.
      • before 600BC: Mexican Indians
        • entirely different from those of any Old World script.
        • Maya wring used both logograms and phonetic signs.
      • around 1810, Sequoya Indians decided to go on to design a system for writing the Cherokee language; initially devised 200 syllabic signs and gradually reduced them to 85 (combination of one consonant and one vowel)
        • within a short time, the Cherokees achieved almost 100% literacy in the syllabary, both a printing press, had Sequoyah's signs cast as type, and began printing books and newspapers.
        • Sequoyah's example can serve as a model for how idea diffusion probably led to many wiring systems of ancient times as well.
      • In 1446 Hangul alphabet devised by Korean King Sejong for Korean language was inspired by the block format of Chinese characters and by the alphabetic principle of Mongol or Tibetan writing.
      • the intended restricted uses of early writing provided a positive disincentive for devising less ambiguous writing systems; to facilitate the enslavement of other human beings.
      • Probably all other peoples who have developed writing since then have borrowed, adapted, or at least been inspired by existing systems.
    • how blueprint copying and idea diffusion contributed to the spread of writing systems.
      • Russian Cyrillic alphabet: an adaptation of Greek and Hebrew letters devised by Saint Cyril in 9C.
      • some inherited letters or signs may be dropped, when the sound that those letter represent in the lending language do not exit in the borrowing language.
        • Finish lacks the sounds of letter b, c, f, g, w, x, and z.
      • Greek alphabetic writing in 8C; was a vehicle of poetry and humor, to be read in private homes.
    • The limited uses and users of early writing suggest why writing appeared so late in human evolution.
      • Early writing served the needs of those political institutions and the users were full-time bureaucrats nourished by stored food surpluses.

12. 設計図と借りた文字:

  • phoneme: 音素
  • logogram: 略字記号 $\$$, %, ¢
  • cuneiform: 楔形文字
  • syllabary: 音節文字
  • idiosyncrasy: 特質、特異性
  • styluse: 尖筆
  • depict: 描く
  • determinative: 限定詞
  • rebus: 判じ絵
  • scribe: 書記
  • hieroglyph: 象形文字
  • acrophonic: 頭音法的
  • ogham: オガム文字 (古アイルランド)
  • bard: 吟遊詩人
  • Shang Dynaty: 商
  • auspicious: 縁起が良い
  • 知識は力; 文字による力の伝播
    • 書き言葉と共に武器、細菌、中央政府が征服の手段となった
    • アルファベットの採用
    • 意味伝達の記号:
      • 中国語
      • エジプト絵文字
      • マヤ文字
      • シュメール楔形文字
  • 文字の発明:
    1. まず発声単位(単語、シラブル、音素)毎に分解
    2. 同じ音要素の認識; 発声における変化、ピッチ、速度、強調、語句まとまり、発音の特徴
    3. これらの変化を無視した文字の決定
    4. シンボル毎の音の創作
    • 3000BCまでに: シュメール楔形文字:
      • 粘土板利用
      • 水平方向、左から右へ、各行は上から下
      • 最初は、絵画的表意文字、その後葦の先筆利用で抽象化
      • 内容は電報的で単語の羅列; 'John 27 fat sheep'的
      • 口承文学: Iliad and Odyssey
    • 3000BC: エジプト文字
    • 1300BC: 中国文字
      • シュメール文字との地理的距離等から、直接影響受けた証拠はない。
    • 600BC以前: メキシコ原住民
      • マヤ文字; 略字記号と音声記号
    • その他文字を発明した民族は、既存システムからの借用、適用、影響を得た。
    • 1446: 韓国ハングル文字: King Sejong時代
    • 1810: Sequoyahインディアンが、英語のalphabetを参考にCherokee言語用に独自の文字を開発
    • ロシア・キリル文字: 9C発明, ギリシャ、ヘブライ語を参考
    • Alphabet採用の場合でも、自国語に該当する音がない場合は、その文字は不使用; フィンラン語は、b,c,f,g,w,x,zは不使用。逆に文字が不足する場合には、2文字・ヒゲなど付加する。
    • ギリシア文字: 民間での詩文用に普及
    • 初期の文字は、利用範囲の限界があり、普及には時間がかかった。

  • 初期の文字の役割:
    • 当時の政治体制に必要、かつ余剰食料で養わたれた専門書記用。
    • 8Cになってギリシャ文字採用以降、詩や散文に使用された。
  • 文字の発明にとって、食料生産は必要条件だが、十分条件ではない。
    • 狩猟民族は、文字を発明していない、書記もいなかった。
    • なぜ文字の独自の発明が、メソポタミア、メキシコ、おそらく中国に限られていたのか。
    • 1520のインカ帝国、赤道以南のアフリカ、サハラ以南の西アフリカ、北アメリカ原住民は、農業生産力は発達していたが、文字の発明はなかった。
    • 文化の伝播は、生態学、地理による格差の要素が大きい。

>Top 13. Necessity's mother

  • Invention of often the mother of necessity, rather than 'Necessity is the mother of invention'
    • in 1877 Thomas Edison's phonograph: reproduction of music was not high on Edison's list of priorities.
      • but after 20 years the main use of his phonograph was a record and play music.
    • In 1905, motor vehicles were still expensive, unreliable toys for the rich.
      • in WWI, the military needed trucks to supplant horse-drawn wagons.
    • the first camera, typewriter, TV sets were as awful as Otto's gas engine.
    • In 1769, James Watt invented steam engine to pump water from coal mines
    • Technology develops cumulatively, rather than in isolated heroic acts, and that it finds most of its uses after it has been invented.
  • Islam:
    • Delivered in grenades, rockets, and torpedoes, those incendiaries played a key role in Islam's defeat of the Crusaders.
      • Chinese had observed that a particular mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter as gunpowder, was especially explosive.
      • about 1,100, Islamic chemical treatise describes seven gunpowder recipes.
      • the chemists discarded the most volatile fraction (gasoline) as an unfortunate waster product.
  • What promotes an invention's acceptance:
    • Relative economic advantage compared with existing technology:
      • Native Mexicans invented wheeled vehicles, but not for transport; lacked domestic animals to hitch to their wheeled vehicles.
    • Social value and prestige:
      • social cachet of the designer label (jeans, etc.)
    • Vested interests:
      • QWERTY keyboard designed in 1873.
    • High wages or labor scarcity:
      • stimulate the search for technological solutions.
    • Ideological rather than economic or organizational:
      • risk-taking behavior
    • Religious compatible with it:
    • War
      • a leading stimulant of technological innovation
    • Climate:
      • technology thrives in a rigorous climate.
    • Resource abundance
    • The usual reasoning is circular: because technological differences exist, the existence of corresponding ideological differences is inferred.
  • Development and reception of inventions:
    • vary enormously form society to society on the same continent. They also vary over time within the same society.
      • Islamic society in ME are relatively conservation; but medieval Islam in the same region was technologically advanced and open to innovation.
      • many classical Greek books are now known to us only through Arabic copies;
      • windmills, tidal mills, trigonometry, lateen sails, and major advances in metallurgy, mechanical and chemical engineering, irrigation methods; adopted paper and gunpowder form China and transmitted them to Europe.
    • 1450, China was technologically much more innovative and advanced than Europe, even more so than medieval Islam.
      • canal lock gates, cast iron, deep drilling, efficient animal harnesses, gunpowder, kites, magnetic compasses, movable type, paper, porcelain, printing, sternpost rudders, and wheelbarrows.
      • 751, papermakers among prisoners of war, and brought them to Samarkand.
      • 7C; Chinese porcelain technology; Porcelain, a fine-grained translucent pottery, reached Europe by the Silk Road in 14C.
    • On any continent, at any given time, there are innovative societies and also conservative ones.
  • Difficult invention is writing:
    • it had only a few independent origins.
    • the alphabet arose apparently only once in world history.
    • other difficult inventions include water wheel, rotary quean, tooth gearing, magnetic compass, windmill, and camera obscura; all of which were invented only once or twice in the Old World.
      • they spread more rapidly than they could be independently invented locally.
    • 3400BC, wheel is first attested near the Black Sea, then turns up within the next few centuries over much of Europe and Asia. (3 planks fasted together; no rim with spokes)
      • Native American wheel: consisted of a single piece (suggested second independent invention)
  • Human technology:
    • 100K-50K BC: possibly genetic changes occurred;
    • 13000BC: sedentary lifestyle:
      • accumulation of possessions, and food production was decisive in the history.
      • not only local invention but also on the diffusion of technology.
      • Hunter-gatherers are limited to technology that can be carried.
      • cannot be burdened with pottery and printing presses.
  • Diffusion and improvement:
    • 1543, Firearms reached Japan; by 1600 Japan owned more and better guns than any other country in the world.
      • then began restriction gun production to a few cities.
    • Ming China: abandonment of oceangoing ships, mechanical clocks
    • Most Polynesians and many Melanesians abandoned bows and arrows in war.
    • >Top auto-catalytic process:
      • simple furnaces to make pottery, then extract copper ores and bronze.
      • about 2,000 years of experience of bronze; iron objects became common.
        (temperature of furnaces)

13. 必要の母:

  • incendiary: 扇動的、焼夷弾
  • baffling: 困惑させる
  • precocious: develped abiliteis at a earlier age than usual
  • idiosyncratic: pecurial or individual
  • tickering: 鋳掛屋
  • repplant: replace
  • denigrate: criticize unfairly
  • precursor: 前兆
  • lurk: 潜む、隠れる
  • tinker: 鋳掛け屋
  • incendiary: -bomb, 焼夷弾
  • grenade: 手投げ弾
  • saltpeter: potassium nitrate
  • treatise: 論文
  • hitch: ひっかける
  • cachet: 印
  • vested interest: 既得権
  • entrenched: ゆるぎない
  • heretic: 異教徒
  • stifle: 窒息させる
  • deforestation: 山林伐採
  • laundry list: 買い物list
  • laypeople: non professional people
  • sternpost: 船尾材
  • tooth gearing: 歯車
  • camera obscura: 暗箱<L. camera=chambere
  • 必要は発明の母というより、むしろ発明は必要の母
    • エジソンの蓄音機:
    • 1905年: 自動車は高価で、金持ちのおもちゃ。第一次大戦で、軍用トラックが普及
    • 1769: 蒸気機関発明、炭鉱排水に利用
    • 技術は連続して進展。発明が発明を呼ぶ
  • イスラム:
    • 手投げ弾、ロケット、機雷の爆弾発明
    • 十字軍対抗に利用
    • 硫黄・木炭・硝石が爆薬となる(中国発明)
    • 1100頃: イスラム; 7種類の爆薬作成書
  • 発明の発展と普及:
    • 各々の社会、時代にとって多様
      • 普及には、経済性だけでなく、気候風土、慣習、労働力、思想、戦争、資源などが影響
    • 中世のイスラム世界は、技術先進地域で、発明に対しオープン
    • ギリシアの書籍の多くはアラビア語経由
    • 風車、潮差ミル、三角関数、三角帆、冶金・機械・化学の改良、灌漑、紙の導入と伝播
    • 1450, 中国は、中世イスラム・欧州より技術先進国
      • 運河閘門、鋳鉄、深堀掘削、効率的な家畜化、火薬、凧、磁気コンパス、移動式タイプ、紙、陶器、印刷、船尾舵、手押し車
      • 751, 紙技術のイスラムへの伝播
      • 7C, 陶器製造技術、14Cに欧州へ伝播
  • 文字の発明の困難さ:
    • 文字の独立での発明は、数回程度
    • アルファベットは、歴史上1回
    • 他の難しい技術は、旧世界で1-2回
      • 車輪、回転臼、歯車、磁力コンパス、風車、暗室カメラ等
    • 3400BC, 黒海近辺で発明、2-3世紀中に欧州・アジアに伝播 (車軸を支える3枚の板でリムなし)
      • 原始アメリカ発明の車輪は1枚板で支える
  • 人類の技術発展
    • 100K-50K BC: 何らかの遺伝的変異
  • 技術の普及・改良
    • 1543; 鉄砲伝来、1600までに世界最良の鉄砲を大量に保有
    • 明: 海禁政策により造船技術停滞
    • 技術は、自己触媒的

>Top 14. From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy:

  • Four categories of societies:
    Band Tribe Chiefdom State
  Population dozens hundreds thousands over 50K
  Settlement pattern nomadic fixed 1 village fixed 1 or more villages fixed many villages
  Basis of relationships kin kin-based clans class & residence class & residence
  Ethinicties & languages 1 1 1 1 or more
  Decision making egalitarian egalitarian or big-man centralized, hereditary centralized
  Bureaucracy none none none or 1-2 levels many levels
  Monopoly of force no no yes yes
  Conflict resolution informal informal centralized laws, judges
  Hierarchy of settlement no no no→paramount village


justifies kleptocracy?
no no yes yes→no
  Food production no no→yes yes→intensive intensive
  Division of labor no no no→yes yes
  Exchanges reciprocal reciprocal redistributive, tribute redistributive, taxes
  Control of land band clan chief various
  Stratified no no yes, by kin yes, not by kin
  Slavery no no small-scale large-scale
  Luxury good for elite no no yes yes
  Public architecture no no no→yes yes
  Indigenous literacy no no no often
  • All existing large societies have complete centralized organization: at least four obvious reasons.
    1. Conflict between unrelated strangers:
    2. Communal decision making with increasing population size
    3. Economic considerations
    4. Complex organization for large societies

14. 平等主義から収奪政治まで:

  • kleptocracy: 収奪政治 <G. kleptes, thief
  • inauspicious: 不吉な
  • 社会の4分類
    • 構成員
      • 人口
      • 居住状況
      • 構成員の関係
      • 民族・言語
    • 政府
      • 意思決定
      • 官僚制度
      • 権力独占
      • 紛争解決
      • 階層
    • 宗教
      • 収奪の正当化
    • 経済
      • 食料生産
      • 労働分割
      • 交換手段
      • 土地管理
    • 社会
      • 階層構造
      • 奴隷制
      • 奢侈品
      • 公共施設
      • 独自読み書き能力

>Top 15. Yali's people

  • Coastline in Pleistocene: the blue dashed lines:
    New Guinea and Australia were joined in an expanded Greater Australia, while Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and Taiwan were part of the Asian mainland. (>Fig.)
    • Torres Strait: only 140km between New Guinea and Australia; the largest Torres Strait island lies only 16km from Australia.
    • New Guineans rate as culturally advanced compared with Native Australians.
    • 40K years ago: Greater Australia was occupied from SE Asia by island hopping.
    • by 35K years ago, fossils and stone tools attest to their presence in SE corner and Tasmania.
      • Australia and New Guineas societies were in isolation from the Asian societies.
      • Neither Aboriginal Australian nor New Guinean language exhibit any clear relationship with any modern Asian languages.
      • Blood type: Group B of ABO system and S of MNS system are virtually absent in Aboriginal Australia.
      • 10K year ago; Arafura Sea finally separated Australia and New Guinea.
    • by 5K years ago, New Guinea highland agriculture; widespread deforestation, introduced sweet potato, along with taro, bananas, yams, sugarcane, edible grass stems.
      • New Guinea became the part of Greater Australia with the most advanced technology, social and political organization, and art.
      • However, from American & European perspective, New Guinea still rates as primitive.
      • Fragmented population: never exceeded 1M; not only small in aggregate, but also fragmented into thousands of micro-populations.
      • many languages: 1,000 out of world 6,000 languages.
    • >Top by 4000BC, Austronesian expansion: Austronesians introduced pottery, chickens, and dogs and pigs to New Guinea; trade connected New Guinea to Java and China.
  • European colonization of New Guinea:
    • 1526: A Portuguese navigator discovered New Guinea
    • 1828; Holland claimed the western half.
    • 1884; Britain and Germany divided the eastern half.
    • by 1960; European governments had established political control over most New Guineans.
      • yet the number of European settlers were very small, that contrast sharply with the situation in Australia, Americas, and South Africa, where European settlement were numerous and replaced the native population over large areas.
      • malaria, hepatitis, dysentery and other tropical diseases defeated all European attempts to settle the New Guinea lowlands.
        • around 1880, lowland settlement plans organized by French ended with 930 out of the 1,000 colonists dead within three years.
      • European crops, livestock, and subsistence methods do poorly in the New Guinea environment.
  • European colonization of Australia:
    • 300K of Aborigines at the time of European settlement in Australia to 6oK in 1921.
    • European guns, germs, and steel in clearing Aborigines out of the way.
    • As for livestock, Eurasian sheep made it possible to extend food production to arid areas of Australia, and Eurasian cattle joined crops in moister areas.
    • most of Australia lacked diseases serious enough to keep out Europeans.
    • in 1788, within a year of the first European settlers' arrival at Sydney, corpses of Aborigines who had died in epidemics became a common sight.; smallpox, influenza, measles, typhoid, typhus, chicken pox, whooping cough, tuberculosis, and syphilis.

15. Yaliの人々:

  • deforestation: 山林伐採
  • Austroneaan: indigenous Tawan, Maritime SE Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that speak the Austroneasian languages.
  • dysentery: 赤痢
  • subsistence: 生計
  • 更新世時代の海岸線 (青破線):
    New Guneaと豪州は一つの大陸
  • seashorepleistcene.gif
  • 4000BCからのオーストロネシア人の植民開始
    • インドネシア経由でオーソトロネシア文化の導入
  • 欧州人によるNew Guinea植民地化:
    • 1526; ポルトガルがNew Guinea発見
    • 1828; オランダ, New Guinea西半分植民地化
    • 1884; New Guinea東半分北側をドイツ、南側を英国が植民地化
    • 欧州式の作物・家畜はNew Guineaでは育成できない。また欧州人は、熱帯感染病に免疫なし

  • 欧州人によるAustralia植民地化:
    • 欧州人居留時点で300千の原住民は、1921までに60千人に減少
    • ユーラシアから羊、続いて牛が導入
    • 1788からの欧州人移民により感染病で、Aboriginesが大量に感染死亡

>Top 16. How China became Chinese:

  • A single writing system: 800M speak Mandarin; 300M others speak seven other languages as similar to Mandarin.
    • North and South China differ in environment and climate as well:
    • China 's appranet linguistic near-unity is also puzzling in view of the liguistic disunity of other long-settled parts of the world.
      • New Guines has 1000 languages.
      • Western Europe evolved 40 languages in 6000-8000 years.
  • Minor languages in China & Indochina:
    • Miao-Yao (alias Hmong-Mien) family: 6M spoeakers divided among about 5 languages; Red Miao, White Miao, Black Miao, Green Miao and Yao
    • Austroasiatic family: Vietnam and Cambodia: 60M speakers; all Philippoine and Polynesian languages many have been of one those toher families that vanished from the Chinese mainland. (now spread to Pacific islands and survived there)
    • Tai-Kadai family: including Thai and Lao, 50 speakers
  • Conquest and absorption of most non-Chines speaking population by Chinese speaking states.
  • English and Spanish into the New World:
    • the immediae causes of that language replacement were the advantages in technology and political organization, the advantage of food production and invading Europeans.
    • The same processes accountred for the replacement of Abopriginal Australian languaged by English.
  • What enabled Sino-Tibetan speakers to spread from North China to South China.
    • From north China to south: 1) broze technology, 2) Sino-Tibetan language, 3) state formation (modeled on Zhou Dynasty, and 221BC political unificaion under Qin Dynasty.)
    • the first Qin emperor condemned all previously written historical books as worthless and ordered them burned.
    • Japan has no thought of discarding its Chinese-derived writing system.

16. いかに中国は中国人となったか:

  • Tai-Kadai family:
  • 中国: 少数言語
  • localchinese.gif
  • ミャオ・ヤオ(苗瑶)語族 (Miao-Yao family)
    • ミャオ語、ヤオ語、シェ語
  • アウストロアジア語族 (Austroasiatic family):
    • ベトナム語、クメール語、
  • タイ・カダイ語族 (Tai-Kadai family):
    • 中国南部、タイ語、ラオス(ラーオ語)、ベトナムの少数民族語

>Top 17. Speedboat to Polynesia

  • In last 6000 years, Austronesian expansion was among the biggest population movements.
    • Austronesian languages are spoken today over more than half of the globe's span, from Madagascar to Easter Island.
      • recently spread through the Philippines and Indonesia, replacing all the former inhabitants of those islands except the Philippine Negritos.
      • Austronesian language family consists of 959 languages.
      • one of subfamilies, termed Malayo-Polynesian comprises 945 of those 959 languages.
      • Taiwan aborigines (2% of Taiwan population) has been the homeland of Austronesian languages for most millennia.
    • Population of Java; genes are similar to South Chinese and those of the Malay Peninsula; their languages are equally homogeneous.
    • >Top Travel between islands was probably by double outrigger sailing canoes, which are still widespread throughout Indonesia today.
      • the invention of the double-outrigger sailing canoe may have been the technological breakthrough that triggered the Austronesian expansion from the Chinese mainland.
      • the people bringing a Neolithic culture to Taiwan, the Philippines, and Indonesia thousands of years ago spoke Austronesian languages.
      • the word 'sheep' distributed from Ireland to India are quite similar: avis, avis, ovis, oveja, ovtsa, owis and oi in Lithuanian, Sanskrit, Latin, Spanish, Russian, Greek, and Irish.
        • Proto-Indo-Europeans 6000 years ago had sheep.
  • Most New Guinea languages (Papuan languages) are unrelated to any language families elsewhere in the world.
  • Descendants of Austronesian invaders and of original New Guineans have been trading, intermarrying, and acquiring each other's genes and languages for several thousand years on the North New Guinea coast and its islands.
  • The outcome of the Austrnesian expansion was opposite:
    • in Indonesia and the Philippines:
      indigenous population (hunter-gatherers lacking even polished stone tools) disappeared, presumably driven off, killed, infected, or assimilated by the invaders.
    • in New Guinea region:
      indigenous population (food production had already been established for thousands of years in the New Guinea highlands) mostly kept the invaders out.
    • South Chinese developed indigenous food production and technology, received wring, more technology, political structures from North China, and went on to colonize tropical SE Asia and Taiwan, largely replacing the former inhabitants of those areas.
  • Unlike Australia and the Americas, East Asia and most Pacific islands remain occupied by East Asian and Pacific people.

17. ポリネシアへの高速艇:

  • outrigger canoe: 舷外浮材
  • capsuze: 転覆する
  • オーストネシア語(南島語)族の広がり:
    (→Madagascar) →日本南九州隼人?
  • austronesian.gif
  • Double outrigger canoe:
  • doubleoutriggerboat.gif
  • Austronesianの侵略による拡大:
    • New Guineaの北岸中心に、貿易・混血によって現地人と融合残存
    • New Guinea本島では、現地人はすでに農耕社会であり、侵略者を排除
    • IndonesiaとPhilipppinesでは、現地人がまだ狩猟民族であったが、一掃駆駆逐された。
    • 南中国では、独自の食料生産と技術があり、北中国から文字、さらなる技術、政治制度を受け入れつつ、東南アジアや台湾に進出し、原住民を駆逐
  • 豪州と南北アメリカとは異なり、東アジアや太平洋島嶼地域は、東アジアおよび太平洋の人々が存続した。

>Top 18. Hemispheres colliding

  • as of 1492: Comparison of Eurasian and Native American:
    • food production: major determinant of local population and societal complexity.
      • In America: only domestic animal: llama/alpaca, was used for meat wool hides, and good transport; never yielded milk, bore a rider, pulled a cart or a plow, or served as a power source.
    • if it had not been for the extinction of Americas' former big wild mammals, modern history might have taken a different course.
  • Difference of agriculture between Eurasia and Americas:
    • Eurasian agriculture:
      • diverse and protein-rich cereals;
      • broadcast sowing
      • plowing by animals
      • animal manuring
    • American agriculture:
      • protein-poor corn
      • hand planting of individual seeds
      • tilling by hands
      • lack of animal manuring to increase soil fertility
    • Agriculture was also widespread in Americas, but hunter-gatherers occupied a larger fraction of Americas than of Eurasia.
  • Germs:
    • infectious diseases that regularly visited crowded Eurasian societies; many Eurasians developed immune or genetic resistance, included all of history's most lethal killers; smallpox, measles, influenza, plague, tuberculosis, typhus, cholera, malaria, and others.
      • most of the microbes evolved from very similar ancestral microbes causing infectious diseases of the domestic animals with which food producers began coming into daily close contact around 10,000 years ago.
  • Tenuous connections of societies:
    • as of 1492, Americas in aggregates are anything but small: heir combined areas is fully 76% that of Eurasia, and their human population was probably also a large fraction of Eurasia's. But the Americas are broken up into islands of societies with tenuous connections.
  • Eurasian attempt to colonize the Americas succeeded because it involved a source, target, latitude, and time that allowed Europe's potential advantaged to be exerted effectively.
    • Spain was rich and populous enough to support exploration and subsidized colonies.
    • the end result has been the elimination of populous Native American societies from most temperate areas suitable for European food production and physiology.
  • After at least 13000 years of separate developments, American and Eurasian societies finally collided within the last 1,000 years.
    • total human population of the Americas is now approximately ten times what it was in 1492, because of arrivals of Old World people.

18. 半球間の衝突:

  • hide: 獣皮
  • 1492年時点でのユーラシアと南北アメリカの比較:
    • 食料生産
    • アメリア: 大型哺乳類絶滅、llama/alpacaのみ
  • ユーラシアの農業:
    • 高蛋白質の穀物
    • 散播
  • 動物による耕耘
    • 動物の肥料
  • アメリカの農業:
    • 低タンパク質コーン
    • 個々の苗の手植え
    • 手作業による耕耘
    • 動物肥料の不足
    • 狩猟採集民族の比率大
  • 動物の家畜化の過程での病原菌
    • ユーラシア人の免疫; 天然痘、麻疹、インフルエンザ、ペスト、結核、チフス、コレラ、マラリア等
  • ユーラシアによる南北アメリカの植民地化
    • スペインの富と人口
    • 海洋進出の造船技術
    • 結果的には、原始アメリカ人をユーラシア的農業適地からほぼ駆逐
  • 各民族コミュニティ間の交流密度
    • 言語と車輪の発明の差
    • 現在の南北アメリカの総人口は1492時点の10倍

>Top 19. How Africa became black:

  • Africa is the only continent to expend from norther to southern temperate zone; with the world's driest deserts, largest tropical rain forests, and highest equatorial mountains.
    • Homo sapiens have arisen since 7M years ago.
  • by AD 1000, how dis those five division's of humanity in Africa?:
    • blacks, whites, African Pygmies, Khoisan, and Asians; striking differences in skin color, hair form and color, facial features.
    • as of 1400, blacks occupied sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Pygmies and Khoisan:
      • Pygmies (mostly hunter-gatherers) have dark skins and tightly curled hair; Pygmies differ from blacks in their much smaller size (shorter than 155cm), more reddish and less black skins, more extensive facial and body hair, and more prominent foreheads, eyes, and teeth.
    • Khoisan: formerly distributed over much of southern Africa.
      • consisted of smaller-sized hunter-gatherers, San, and
      • larger herders Khoi (or Hottentot and Bushmen).
      • both Khoi and San look quite unlike African blacks: there skins are yellowish, heir hair is very tightly coiled, and women tend to accumulate much fat in their buttocks (steatopygia).
      • Khoi have been greatly reduced in numbers: European colonists shot, displaced, or infected many of them.
      • The San were similarly shot, displaced, and infected; but small number have preserved their distinctness in Namibian desert areas.
    • Madagascar:
      • some came from tropical SE Asia.
  • Languages in Africa:
    • >Top Afroasiatic are confined to Africa; which arose in Africa and that only one branch of them spread to the Near East; 12 out of 19 surviving Semitic languages being confined to Ethiopia.
      • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arose among peoples speaking Semitic languages; Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic.
      • Hence it may have been Africa that gave birth to the language spoken by the authors of the Old and New Testaments and the Kohran.
      • between 900-4000BC the Sahara was more humid, held numerous lakes.
    • Nilo-Saharan languages; many speakers of those languages have been engulfed by speakers of Afroasiatic or Niger-Congo languages.
    • Khoisan languages are confined to southern Africa; which is unique in their use of clicks as consonants. (!Kung Bushman)
    • >Top Niger-Congo languages of subequatorial Africa belong to a single language subgroup termed Bantu; arose in West Africa. That subgroup accounts for nearly half of the 1032 Niger-Congo languages (200M). (Bantu expansion?)
      • Pygmies and Khoisan peoples had formerly ranged more widely, until they were engulfed by blacks.
      • What advantages enabled Bantu to displace Pygmies and Khoisan?
        • Evidence is important because food production led to high population densities, germs, technology, political organization, and other ingredients of power.
    • by AD 300-800; Austroneasian colonization of Madagascar.
      • a strange world of living animals as distinctive as if they had come from another planet, because those animals had evolved on Madagascar during its long isolation; giant elephant birds, primitive primates lemurs as big as gorillas, and pygmy hippos, etc.

19. いかにアフリカは黒人になったか:

  • Khoisan: コイサン語族
  • Bantu: バンツー諸語 (中央南アフリカ)
  • Languages in Africa: (Wikipedia)
  • africanlanguage.gif
  • アフリカ大陸は、世界で唯一南北に異なる気候分布
    • 最も乾燥した砂漠と最大の熱帯雨林
    • 7 ma; Homo sapiens発祥の地
  • AD 1000時点での人口分布:
    • 黒人、白人、ピグミー、コイサン、アジア人;
    • 1400年時点で、黒人がサハラ以南で多数
    • ピグミー:
      殆どが狩猟採集; 赤褐色〜黒褐色の肌、カールした髪、低身長(155cm以下)、濃い体毛、明確な額・目・歯
    • コイサン:
      かつてはアフリカ南部に広く分布; 小柄な狩猟民族のSan族と、大柄な牧夫のKhoi (またはTottentot, Bushmen)から成る
    • 黄褐色の肌、きつくカールした髪、女性は臀部に脂肪蓄積
    • 人口は植民地化に伴い減少
  • アフリカでの言語状況
    • アフロ・アジア語族 (Afroasiatic): アフリカ発祥で現在エチオピア中心。セム系言語19の内12。
      • 900-4000BC; サハラ地域は、当時は湿潤で、多くの湖あり。
    • ナイル・サハラ語族 (Nilo-Saharan)
      • 多くはsアフロ・アジア語族やニジェール・コンゴ語族に吸収された
    • コイサン語族 (Khoisan)
      • 南アフリカに限定。子音の使い方に特徴
    • ニジェール・コンゴ語族 (Niger-Congo)
      • 赤道以南に広く分布; Bantu語族はその一部
    • オーストロネシア語族 (Austroneasian):
      • AD 300-800: マダガスカル島へ進出

>Top 20. Who are the Japanese:

  • The origins of Japanese language are among the most disputed questions of linguistics.
    • Who are the Japanese, when and whence did they come to Japan, and how did they evolve their unique speech?
    • very similar in their appearance and gens to to other East Asians, especially to Koreans; little difference among people from different parts of Japan.
    • the Japanese reached Japan recently from the East Asian mainland and displaced the Ainu, the original inhabitants.
    • theories of the origin:
      1. before 2000BC, the Japanese gradually evolved from ancient Ice Age people who occupied Japan.
      2. in AD 4C, Central Asian nomads who passed through Korea to conquer Japan.
      3. around 400BC, the Japanese are descendants of immigrants from Korea who arrived with rice paddy agriculture.
    • AD 300-686; 158 Gigantic kofun tombs were constructed.
    • archaeological deposits: 20 times more Neolithic sites have been discovered in Japan than in the whole of China.
    • AD 300-700; Japan conquered Korea then and brought Korean slaves and artisans to Japan, or K0rea conquered Japan, and the founders of the Japanese imperial family were Korean.
    • Japanese archipelago: 180km from Korea, 290km from mainland Russia and 740km from mainland China.
    • annual rainfall 4,000mm concentrated in summer season; causing highest plant productivity, with only 14% is farmland, while more than 70% is covered by forest.
    • abundance of edible nuts; such as walnut, chestnut, acorn, beechnut.
  • Evidence form archeology:
    • Japanese external appearance; similar to Koreans, North Chinese, and east Siberians.
    • Ainu, hunter-gatherer: luxuriant beard and profuse body hair; fingerprint patterns and type of ear wax has let to their being classified as Caucasoids migrated east through Eurasia.
    • Japanese did replace Ainu over Japan; the replacement must have occurred before AD 500; Ainu language is virtually extinct, and probably no purebred Ainu survives.
    • Ice Age Japan; not a great place to live; even though most of Japan escaped the glaciers, Japan was still cold, dry, and extensively covered with conifer and birch.
  • End of the Ice Ages:
    • during the ICE Ages, much ocean water was locked up in glaciers and sea level lay about 150m lower than today; Hokkaido was connected with Sahalin Island to the Russian mainland.
    • Kyushu was connected by another land bridge to South Korea over Tsushima Strait.
    • All of the main Japanese islands were connected to one another.
    • a million years ago, mammals waling out to Japan, and Japan's bears, monkeys, and ancient humans, long before boats had been invented.
    • 30,000 years ago, earliest people developed stone tools with edges ground to a sharp edge instead of just chipped or flaked. (Neolithic Age)
    • around 13000 years ago, glaciers melted rapidly all over the world; temperatures, rainfall, and humidity all increased; leafy forests full of nut trees.
  • >Top Jomon Culture:
    • the end of the Ice Age, the the world's oldest invention of pottery (12,700 years ago in Kyushu); new ability to boil, steam, or simmer food, they gained access to abundant food resources, causing small children weaned earlier, their mothers to produce babies at shorter intervals, and old people could now be fed and live longer.
    • hunter-gatherers usually don't have pottery, most sedentary societies only with adoption of agriculture.
      • Japanese environment is so productive that it was one of the few locations where people could settle down and make pottery while still living as hunter-gatherers, before intensive agriculture reached Japan.
      • Japanese pottery was baked in open fires rather than in kilns, at lower temperature; which was decorated by rolling or pressing a cord on the clay while it was still soft. (Jomon culture)
  • From Jomon garbage:
    • their heavy pottery, stone tools, and big village sites suggests that they were hunters-gatherers to have been sedentary rather than nomadic.
    • food category:
      • chestnuts, walnuts, horse chestnuts, acorns stored fro the winter in underground storage.
      • 64 edible plants: berries, fruits, seeds, leaves, shoots, bulbs and roots.
      • various fish
      • pig domestication
      • 1200BC, Jomon people were starting to practice some slash-and-burn agriculture.
    • population of Jomon Japan at its peak are 250,000, which were impressive for hunter-gatherers.
    • they have no domestic animals (apart from dogs), no metal tools, no writing, no weaving.
    • Jomon Japan was a conservative miniature universe maintained isolation and changed little over 10,000 years.
      • China living in walled towns and on the verse of political unification to become the world's largest empire.
      • beginning around 7500BC, China had developed intensive agriculture based on millets in the north and rice in the south, with domestic pigs, chickens and water buffalo.
  • Distinctiveness of Japanese language:
    • does not bear a detailed close relation to any other language; isolate member of Altaic language family, consisting Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungus languages.
    • Japanese and Korean may be more related to each other; in general grammatical features and about 15% of their basic vocabulary.
    • Japanese and Korean diverged each other over 5000 years ago, rather than the mere 2000 years or less during French and Spanish have been diverging.
  • Written information:
    • In AD 712-720, Extensive chronicles were written in Japan and later in Korea; designed to glorify and legitimize ruling families; 'Wa'
    • massive influence on Japan by Korea, and China via Korea; introduction of Buddhism, writing, metallurgy, other crafts, and bureaucratic methods into Japan.
  • >Top Around 400BC, Yayoi Culture:
    • Arrival of a new lifestyle from South Korea:
      the second population explosion
      • Japan's first metal tools of iron, and full-scale agriculture; Yayoi pottery had shapes very similar to those of contemporary South Korean pottery.
      • triggered an immediate population explosion in Kyushu, where identified far more Yayoi sites than Jomon sites, even though Jomon period lasted 14 times longer.
    • Social stratification:
      marked by luxury goods imported from China, beautiful jade, and bronze mirrors.
      • mass production of arrowheads, defensive moats; corroborates political units fighting with one another.
  • Kofun era:
    • beginning around AD 300, enormous earth mound tombs (kofun, 460m long30m high) in the shape of a keyhole were constructed from Kyushu to North Honshu.
      • transmitted Buddhism, writing, horse riding, new ceramic and metallurgical techniques were transmitted to Japan.
    • Radical change in 700 years of Yayoi era than 10 millennia of Jomon times.
      • Jomon people gradually evolved, or massive influx of immigrants from Korea
      • highly productive agriculture enables a modest number of immigrant rice farmers to reproduce much faster than Jomon hunter-gatherers and eventually to outnumber them.
      • In 700 year 5,000 immigrants would have left 5M descendants.
    • Gene analysis of Jomon & Yayoi skeletons:
      • Jomon skulls differ from those of modern Japanese and most similar to those of modern Ainu
      • while Yayoi skulls most resemble those of modern Japanese.
      • Contribution of two gene pools: Korean/Yayoi contribution and Ainu/Jomon contribution (lowest in southwest Japan, and greater in northern Japan).
    • factors of Yayoi transition:
      • iron and intensive farming reached Japan simultaneously.
    • language affinity between Korean and Japanese:
      • Ainu/Jomon language evolved great linguistic diversity (over 10,000 years and 2,500km distance)
        • Ainu word for river (nai or betsu) or cape (shiri)
        • Japanese language shows some influence of Austronesian languages; such as open syllables (a consonant followed by a vowel)
        • AD 676, modern Korean language is derived from the language of Silla, but Silla had not close contact with Japan in the preceding centuries.
        • one of the kingdom (Koguryo) are much more similar to the old Japanese words.
        • Korean language that was carried to Japan in 400BC, and that evolved into modern Japanese.
      • Koreans and Japanese are like twin brothers who shared their formative years. The political future of East Asia depends in large part on their success in rediscovering those ancient bonds between them.

20. 日本人とは何者か:

  • desecration: 神聖冒涜
  • loathing: 嫌悪感
  • artcane: 神秘的な
  • deciduous: 落葉性
  • wallnut: クルミ
  • horse chestnut: セイヨウトチノキの実
  • acorn: ドングリ
  • beechnut: ブナの実
  • profuse: 豊富な
  • birch: 樺
  • precocity: 予見
  • wean: 離乳させる
  • harpoon: 銛を打ち込む
  • porpoise: イルカ
  • weir: 堰
  • corroborate: 裏付ける
  • moat: 堀
  • prodigious: 莫大な
  • 日本人の起源
    1. 2000BC 氷河期以降、先住民が徐々に進化
    2. 4C頃、中央アジア遊牧民が、朝鮮半島経由日本を征服
    3. 400BC; 朝鮮からの稲作文化をもった移民の子孫
    • 300-686: 巨大古墳の建設
    • 新石器時代の日本にある遺跡数は、中国より多い
    • AD300-700; 日本が朝鮮を占領し、朝鮮の奴隷・技術者を拉致、または、朝鮮が日本を占領し、日本の創始者(天皇)は朝鮮人とする両説
    • 日本列島: 朝鮮半島から180km、ロシア本土から290km、中国本土から740km
  • 考古学上の証拠:
    • 日本人の外形: 朝鮮、北中国、東シベリアに似ている
    • アイヌ(狩猟民族): 濃い体毛、指紋、耳垢、歯などコーカソイドの特徴
    • AD 500までに、アイヌを駆逐
    • 氷河期の日本は寒冷で、耕作に不適
  • 氷河期の終わり:
    • 氷河期は、日本列島は大陸と陸続き
    • 100万年前、マンモス・熊・猿・人が大陸から移動
    • 30,000年前、日本の新石器時代(磨製石器)
    • 13,000年前、氷河期の終了: 温暖湿潤化
  • 縄文文化:
    • 12,700年前: 氷河期の終わり、世界最古の土器発見(九州)
    • 狩猟民族は、土器は移動に不適なので不使用
    • 日本の気候風土は生産力高い
    • 縄文土器は、低温で外焼き
  • 縄文遺跡・貝塚: (三内丸山遺跡等)
    • 重い土器、石器、大規模集落は、定住性の狩猟民族を示す
    • 食料: 64種類の植物; ナッツ、果実、草、様々な魚、豚の家畜化
    • 1200BC頃には、焼き畑農業実施
    • 縄文時代の人口25万人。狩猟民族としては大規模
    • (犬以外の)家畜なし、金属なし、文字なし、機織りなし
    • 縄文日本は、1万年ほとんど変化せず、超保守的・孤立的
    • 7500BC頃より、中国ではすでに城壁都市を持つ権力集中、北部では稗、南部では米農業生産、家畜も豊富

  • 日本語の特徴:
    • 他の言語との共通性少ない。トルコ系・モンゴル系・ツングース系アルタイ言語に属する
    • 日本語と朝鮮語は5000年前に分岐;
  • 文字情報:
    • 712古事記、720日本書紀
    • 朝鮮、中国(朝鮮経由)の影響大
      538, 552仏教、5C漢字、冶金、工芸、官僚組織の伝来

  • 400BC頃, 弥生文化:
    • 南朝鮮からの新たな生活様式伝来; 第二次人口増加
    • 鉄の製法、大規模農業、弥生式土器は朝鮮の土器と酷似
    • 特に九州で人口爆発。14倍長い縄文時代より変化大
    • 社会の階層化
      • 大量の鏃、防御堀、相互の内戦を裏付ける
  • 古墳時代:
    • AD300-600:
    • 仏教、漢字、騎馬、新陶器、冶金技術の伝来
    • 弥生時代の700年間は、縄文時代の10000年より急激な変化
    • 人口増加
    • 朝鮮半島からの渡来人; 500人が700年間で500万人に増加した可能性
  • 遺伝子解析
    • 縄文人は、むしろアイヌに近い
    • 弥生人は、現代日本人に近い
    • 2つの遺伝プール:
      アイヌ・縄文系 (西南日本に少なく、北日本に多い)
    • 弥生時代の変化の要因: 鉄製法と集中農業の普及

  • 朝鮮語と日本語の類似性:
    • アイヌ・縄文語は長い時間(10000年)と長い距離(2500km)で変化
      • 北海道の市町村名の80%アイヌ語語源
        • 札幌sapporopet(乾く・大きい・川)
        • 小樽otarunay(砂・融ける・川)
        • 知床shirietok(地面・先端)
        • 富良野furanui (臭気・持つ・モノ)
        • 室蘭moruran (小さい・板)
        • 登別nubupet (水の色濃い・川)
        • 洞爺toya (湖・岸)
        • 宗谷soya (岩・岸)
    • 日本語にはオーストロネシア語の影響:
      • 子音連続は起こらないが、ン(N)とッ(Q)のみ子音連続が起こる。
      • 例: miNna(皆), taNbi(度), siQkari(確), haQpA(葉)
      • AD676に、現代朝鮮語は新羅が起源。新羅は日本との緊密な交流なし
      • 高句麗は、古代日本との関係大
      • 400BC, 朝鮮語伝来し、日本語として進化
    • 朝鮮人と日本人とは兄弟関係。東アジアの将来にとって、この古代以来の関係認識が重要

>Top 21. Epilogue: The Future of Human History as a Science:

  • The first set consists of continental differences in the wild plant and animal species.
    • most wild animal and plant species have proved unsuitable for domestication; food production has been based on relatively few species of livestock and crops.
  • Second factor; consists of those affecting rates of diffusion and migration, which differed greatly among continents.
    • They were most rapid in Eurasia, because of its east-west major axis and relatively modest ecological and geographical barriers.
  • Third factor; diffusion within continents and diffusion between continents, which may help build up a local pool of domesticates and technology.
    • it has been easiest from Eurasia to sub-Saharan Africa supplying most of Africa's species of livestock. But interhemispheric diffusion made no contribution to Native America's complex societies, isolated from Eurasia.
  • Fourth factor; continental differences in area or total population size. Larger area or population means more potential inventors, more competing societies, more innovations available, and more pressure to adopt and retain innovations.
    • The Americas, despite their large aggregate area, were fragmented by geography and ecology.
  • Those four sets of factors constitute big environmental differences that can be quantified objectively and that are not subject to dispute.
    • Why, then, did the Fertile Crescent and China eventually lose their enormous leads of thousands of years to late-starting Europe?
    • Proximate factors behind Europe's rise: its development of a merchant class, capitalism, and patent protection for inventions, its failure to develop absolute despots and crushing taxation.
    • 1405-1433: Zhèng Hé sent treasure fleets, each consisting of hundreds of ships up to 120m long and with total crews of up to 28,000 across the Indian Ocean as far as the east cost of Africa. But in Ming Chinese court stopped sending fleets, eventually dismantled the shipyards, and forbade oceangoing shipping. One decision stopped fleets over the whole of China.
    • These consequences of Europe's disunity stand in sharp contrast to those of China's unity. In 14C, Chinese court abolished mechanical clocks after leading the world in clock construction and retreated from mechanical devices and technology after the late 15C.
    • Past primacy is no guarantee of future primacy.
    • A minor cultural feature may arise for trivial, temporary local reasons, become fixed, and then predispose a society toward more important cultural choices, as is suggested by applications of chaos theory to other fields of science.

21. 後記: 科学としての人類歴史の将来:

  • 第1要因:
    • 家畜化に適した動植物の種類はごく少数
  • 第2要因:
    • ユーラシアは、東西軸が広く、環境的相違が相対的に少ないので、伝播が容易
  • 第3要因:
    • ユーラシア大陸からサハラ以南アフリカへの伝播は、過去6000年間は容易
  • 第4要因:
    • アメリカ大陸が規模は大きいが地理的には分断
  • 以上4要因を客観的要素として考慮することが重要
    • なぜ肥沃な三日月地帯や中国は、後発の欧州に抜かれてしまったのか。
    • 欧州の興隆には、商人階級、資本主義、発明の権利保全、絶対権力や過酷な税制が欠如していたことが大きい
    • 1405-1433 鄭和の大航海の成功も、その後の明王朝の海禁政策によって、大型航海造船技術が頓挫したこと。絶対的な中央集権でその影響が負となった。
    • 過去の優位性は、将来の優位性の保証とはならない。
    • 一時的やローカルでの小さな文化的特質が、大きな文化的選択となり社会を規定する。カオス理論のように科学の他領域に影響する。
  • This is a profound, persuasive history of mankind; including how invented agriculture, and social organization as well as writing and technology, with accompanied disease and its influence.
  • Though the key factors described in this book are limited, but those clarify the essence and diffusion of human history and civilization,
  • Was the invention of writing system a by-product of agriculture? The by-product has produced following by-product named knowledge.
  • We are now enforced by Covid-19 epidemic to live mostly stay home and reading; which seems a by-product (stay home and more reading & studying) of by-product (knowledge) of a by-product (writing) of a by-product (agriculture).
  • As of Oct, 2020, Japanese Suga administration has been stubbornly refusing to appoint six scholars recommended by the Science Council of Japan, turning academic societies and many scholars into enemies. How can he lead this uncertain world without motivation, brain ability and full support of scientist communities of Japan?
  • In contract, the newly elected US President, Joe Biden, is about to launch a Covid-19 task force composed of elite scientists group. Joe says, "To marshal the forces of science and the forces of hope in the great battles of our time."
  • 本書は人類の深淵な説得力のある歴史書である。如何に農業や社会組織、文字や技術が、そして付随して病気やその影響について述べている。
  • 本書で記述された要素は限定的だが、それらは人類の歴史と文明の本質と伝播を説明している。
  • 文字の発明は農業の副産物だったのか。その副産物は次の知識という副産物を作り出した。
  • 現在、我々はコロナウイルスでほとんどstay homeと読書を余儀なくされている。それは、農業から始まる副産物としての文字、それから知識へ、そしてStay homeによるさらなる読書と勉強につながるという訳なのか
  • 2020/10現在, 日本の菅政権は、日本学術会議の推薦者の任命の6名の拒否を頑固に貫いており、学会や多くの学者を敵に回している。科学者学会の意欲と頭脳や全面的な協力なくして、どうやってこの不確定な世界をリードしていこうというのか。
  • 対照的に、米国大統領に選出されたばかりのJoe Bidenは、すぐさま精鋭の科学者の英知を集めたコロナ対策タスクフォースを発足させようとしている。Biden次期大統領は、「科学の力と希望の力を結集して今日の光栄ある闘いに備えよう」と。

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