>Top 5. Impact on the modern medicine:
- The concept of pathogen was born with the modern Wester medicine; which means the disease will disappear by breaking the pathogen by medicine. (thus, medicine means diagnosis, treatment, and drug.)
- pathogen, drug, disease are divisible system.
- almost neglecting interactions between internal organs, or organ and bacteria/virus, etc.
- assuming a human body as a small harmonic cosmos.
- But actually, relationship of interactions should be more complicated, like spider's network.
- In Chinese medicine, the concept of pathogen is not obvious; explaining diseases come from the state of unbalanced situation of the body.
- A certain pathogen happens to exist the unbalanced portion, making the disease worse.
- This means that eradication of the pathogen does not always return to the complete cure.
- Side effects of medicine may be caused by unexpected ripple effect of interactions, because medicine cannot target to the affected area by the disease.
- >Top Individualism: Absolute freedom of individuals:
- This idea assumes that the society is an aggregation of individuals; maximization of individual right or profit will be the best situation.
- Mathematically, the sum of individual profit equals to (or, can be reduced) the society's profit.
- >Top Excessive specialized differentiation:
- Philosophers probably gave up to follow the logic of mathematics from a certain period; who feel some discomfort the contradiction between mathematics and real world, but who could not afford to debate it with mathematicians.
- While, mathematicians tend to stay in a narrow specialized area of the mathematics, having less interest to debate about wider social issues.: >Fig.
- Specialists feel it rather comfortable to live in a small specialized area.
- Globalized Capitalism:
- Laissez-faire and Market Capitalism universalism entrusting God's invisible hand
- Causing meltdown of social order; expanding social disparity
- Oligopoly: turning around economy only within the wining group:
- It is a preferable state that the flow of money circulated passing all social components. >Fig.
- >Top There are more patterns of oligopolistic state than preferable state; which means the latter case could be substituted (or degenerated like a black hole) by the former from probability.
- Laisser-faire policy advocated by Adam Smith and his successors:
- They considered the concept of equilibrium, but did not that of degeneration or collapsar
- Thee-body problem of the solar system is solved considering that the sun's gravity is enormous, almost neglecting other gravities of satellites.
- Genetic engineering:
- >Top Human Genome Project (HGP)
- Reading of 3B of human genome does not mean to understand human genetic information at all.
- It should read 3B genome plus all interactions in a body; considering ecosystem and internal balance of the system, avoiding environmental destruction and degeneration by over simplification.
- >Top Occam's razor: William of Ockham (1287c-1347), scholastic philosopher <L. novacula Occami
- is a problem-solving principle, stating 'Entities should not be multiplied without necessity.'
- or, the simplest solution is most likely the right one; one should select the solution with the fewest assumptions.
- or, simpler theories are preferable to more complex ones because they are more testable.
- or Ptolemy (90-168): 'We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible.'
- or 'It is vain to do with more what can be done with fewer.'
- >Top Ernst Mach (1838-1916): Austrian physicist and philosopher.
- criticized Newton' theories of space and time; foreshadowed Einstein's theory of relativity, but apparently rejected it.
- Mach defended a type of phenomenalism recognizing only sensations as real.
- he didn't believe the atoms exist!(1897); criticized by Max Planck as being incompatible with physics.
- his goal was the simplest and most economical abstract expression of facts.
- Machian physics: 'Phenomenological constructivism':
- should be based entirely on directly observable phenomena.
- should completely eschew absolute space and time in favor of relative motion.
- >Top Thinking economy:
- Theory-A can explain 20 phenomena, but it take 60 times efforts to understand the theory-A.
- Theory-B, a cheaper theory than theory-A, which can explain 10 phenomena, but it is easier to understand by only 5 time efforts.
- If there are two typed of theory-B, say theory-B1 and -B2, the sum of these can explain 20 phenomena with sum of efforts 10.; theory-B1 plus -B2 has the efficiency of understanding is sixth of theory-A.
- Is such division of theory-B really effective? this thought experiment implies fallacy of composition.
- It is needed to input an useful summary of knowledge in a limited capacity of our brain.
- pathogen: 病原体 <G. pathos, suffering
- regenerate: 縮退する
- falsibiability: 反証可能性
- precursor: 先駆者
- thinking economy: 思考経済
- fallacy of compositon: 合成の誤謬
- Premise of Western Medicine:
- Oligopoly state to Preferable state: