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Reporting Strategy in IFRS Age

Cat: ECO
Pub: 2010

T. Iwamoto & Charles Hoffman


Reporting Strategy in IFRS Age


  1. Introduction:
  2. Reporting is the starting point of business:
  3. Innovation reported information chain:
  4. What is XBRL?:
  5. How to deal with a flood of reported information?:
  6. Global innovation based on XBRL:
  7. XBRL as defacto standard:
  8. Relationship of IFRS and XBRL:
  9. Future of Reporting:
  1. 序文:
  2. 報告はビジネスの起点:
  3. 報告情報連鎖のイノベーション:
  4. XBRLとは何か:
  5. 報告情報の洪水への対処:
  6. 世界のXBRL型イノベーション:
  7. XBRLをデファクトスタンダードに:
  8. IFRSとXBRLの関係:
  9. レポーティングの未来:
; AICPA; Charles Hoffman; CQL; EDINET; FDIC; Financial Reporting; Harsh; IFRS; Inline XBRL; Metadata; Note information; OCC; Primary users: SBR; SEC; Semantic web; Social Business; SOX Act; Taxonomy & Instance; TDNet; Transparency; Usability; Use cases; XBRL; XII; XML;

>Top 0. Introduction:

  • Important rules in the financial market were established:
    • 1933 US Securities Act, and 1934 US Securities Exchange Act
  • But in 21C, serious accounting fraud cases occurred such as Enron (2001) including Arthur Anderson, Worldcom (2002).
    • 2002 SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act, known as Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protect Act.
    • 2006: SOX-Japan version
    • 2008: Lehman shock, which proved that release only of the information is not enough. Risks of a subprime loan had diffused worldwide. The prospectus of a fund amounted several thousand pages; which no one could neither understand nor manage.
      • This event caused by many falsification and intransparent release of related information.
  • >Top IFRS (International Financial reporting Standards), which enables to evaluate various reports issued in different countries in a single standard.
    • SOX Act function to enforce to publish correctly the information of a company's financial data.
    • XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language), which was proposed by Charles Hoffman.
      • 1998/10: XBRL 1.0 was released based on XML, which aims to reduce users from the burden of analyzing published reports, as well as to emancipate many business persons to make too monotonous reporting jobs.
      • Charles Hoffman appealed the necessity of establishing XBRL to AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants), whose original name was XFRML (eXtensible Financial Reporting Markup Language) but formally renamed XBRL in 2000/4.
      • 2001/12: The first international conference on XBRL was held.

0. 序文:

  • amount: come to be the total added together
  • falsification: 改竄
  • XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language)
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language): XML 1.0 was released in 1998 consisting of element & attribute
  • 3 component to manage reported information:
    Reporting is the essential activity of a corporation or a business person.
    1. IFRS: Global Financial Standard
    2. SOX Act: Correct information
    3. XBRL: Computer processes the information
  • XBRLはSOX法、IFRSと補完し合って、企業情報の報告を大量迅速活用のためにXMLベースに開発されたコンピュータ言語


>Top 1. Reporting is the starting point of business:

  • 'Business' is an action to produce a kind of value; but its content and process are getting invisible nowadays.
    • Reporting is a process to explain properly the value of a business.
    • An able business persons tend to look down on reporting activity.
    • An episode: "advised his friend who became CEO that there will be two things you couldn't get; a bad meal and a truth."; harsh or offensive information is usually filtered by the hierarchy.
      • It is said that only several percentage of information is generally used, though organizations are making enormous volume of information.
      • Most of critical or offensive information is intentionally screened, neglected or omitted.

1. 報告はビジネスの起点:

  • report: arrived at a particular place to do sth
  • 利用されるのはわずか数%の情報
  • 耳障りな情報は忖度されて廃棄
  • 「報告」はビジネス活動の中核の一つ

>Top 2. Innovation of reported information chain:

  • Financial information is made from the data of money, contract, sales, asset, mortgage, right, credit, etc.
    • A transaction information consists of 1) data of transaction, and 2) reporting of result caused by the transaction.
    • Some information is to reported or registered to the authority, while some is kept in the organization as a classified information.
    • >Top In US, SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) and FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
  • >Top Longtime problems of Financial Reporting:
    1. Transparency of reporting: easy to be checked, including entity, term, unit, measuring standard, etc., avoiding errors in transcription or posting.
    2. Usability of reporting: includes various definitions or calculations, like sales minus production cost minus sales cost equals operating profit, etc., including retroactive checking.
    3. Metadata of reporting: data which defines something, like gender, date of birth, etc.
    • Participants related to Financial Reporting:
      • The first reporter who made the report.; XBRL minimizes to make the report.
      • Acceptor and redistributor of the report (usually regulatory agencies)
      • Users who use the distributed reports.; XBRL maximizes to utilize the report.
  • >Top Financial information should be distributed with correctness, quickness, and low-cost. (CQL)

2. 報告情報連鎖のイノベーション:

  • metadata: a set of data that describes information about other data
  • taxonomy: branch of science concerned with classification
  • instance: an example or single occurrence of sth.
  • 財務報告の長年の課題:
    • 透明性:
    • 利用性:
    • メタデータ化:
    • これらの特徴によって作成作業が簡便となり、利用者にとっては活用応用が拡大
  • 財務情報の配布に必須要素 (CQL):
    • 正確性
    • 迅速性
    • 低コスト

>Top 3. What is XBRL?:

  • XBRL allows semantic meaning commonly required in business reporting, which is based XML technologies such as XML Schema, XLink, XPath, and Namespaces.
    • XBRL specification is develope and publish by XBRL International, Inc. (XII)
    • Latest version: XBRL 2.1
    • Taxonomy: Definition of financial terms; such as
      • NetIncomeOrLoss = Net Income (loss) (English label)
      • SalesNet = Sales Net (English label)
    • Instance: Reporting document with filename '.xbrl'; or fact reported or related information
  • Tasks with or without using XBRL: <Fig.>
    • When use XBRL, value-added tasks can be increased, while routine tasks be decreased.
    <XBRL> Structure
1 XBRL Instance
  • XBRL instance begins with <xbrl> root element. There may be more than one XBRL instance embedded in a larger XML document, holding following information.
  • Business Facts - can be divided into: Items are facts holding a single value, or Tuples holding multiple values, represented by a single XML element containing nested Items or Tuples.
  • Contexts define entity, e.g., company or individual, the period of time, an optional scenario (weather the business values reported are actual, projected, or budgeted), and date & time information.
  • Units define the units used by numeric or fractional facts within the document, such as USD, shares. XBRL allows more complex units if necessary.
  • Footnotes use XLink to associate one or more facts with some content.
  • References to XBRL taxonomies, typically through schema references. It is also possible to link directly to a linkbase.
2 XBRL Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy schemas define Item and Tuple concepts using <xsd: element> elements. Concepts provide name for the fact and indicate whether tuple or an item, data type (monetary, numeric, fractional, or textual), and potentially more metadata. Items and Tuples can be regarded as implementations of concepts, or specific instances of a concept. In addition to defining concept, taxonomy schemas reference linkbase documents. Tuples instances are 1..n relationships with their parents; their metadata is simply the collection of their attributes.
  • Linkbases are a collection of Links, which themselves are a collection of locators, arcs, and potentially resources. Locator are elements that essentially reference a concept and provide an arbitrary label for it. In turn, arcs are elements indication that a concept links to another concept by referencing the labels defined by the locators. Some arcs link concepts to other concepts. Other arcs link concepts to resources, the most common of which are human-readable labels for the concepts. XBRL 2.1 specification defines five different kinds of linkbases. (Label Linkbase; Reference Linkbase; Calculation Linkbase; Definition Linkbase; Presentation Linkbase)
3 Label Linkbase
  • This linkbase provides human readable strings for concepts. Using the label linkbase, multiple languages can be supported, as well as multiple strings within each language.
  • XBRL aims to become a worldwide standard for electronic business reporting. This requires taxonomies to present business data in many different languages. Therefore, it is important to be able to create an element that is assigned with labels for different languages.
  • There may also be different labels for different purposes. All labels are stored and linked to the elements in a label linkbase.
  • Elements defined in a schema are built to convey accounting meaning to computers. In order to make it easier for computers to process their names, they have to obey some rules. For example, the use of spaces is not allowed so 'Cash and Cash Equivalents' would be named 'CashAndCashEquivalents'.
  • Additionally, big taxonomies such as IFRS obey specific rules of naming and labelling to ensure consistency within the schema. For example, there could be a list of words that are excluded from the names, e.g., :and:, "of" ..., or words that appear only in a particular order (i.e., 'Net' or 'Total' at the end of the label after a comma).
  • In the label linkbase, elements are connected to human readable labels using "concept-label" arcrole.
4 XBRL and XML
  • To distinguish between languages, XBRL uses the XML attribute lang. Taxonomy creators may also define different labels for one element.
  • One of the ideas of XBRL is that the information about the period and currency for which the element is reported is not contained within an element definition but is described by a context in instance documents.
  • In financial reporting on the other hand, many terms express the date for which they are being reported, for instance Property, Plant and Equipment at the beginning of year and Property, Plant and Equipment at the end of year.
  • XBRL allows the creation of different labels depending on the context in which an element will be used.
5 Reference Linkbase
  • This linkbase associates concepts with citations of some body of authoritative literature.
  • Financial concepts appearing on business reports more often than not stem from regulatory documents issued by authorities. For example, the IFRS Taxonomy describes financial reports prepared based on IFRSs (Bound Volume).
  • Elements defined by this taxonomy refer to the specific terms and concepts explained in the standards. For this reason, a taxonomy is often provided with a reference linkbase.
  • Present relationships between elements and external regulations or standards (the other solution is to enclose documentation in label linkbase). This helps instance creators and users understand the intended meaning of each element and provides support for its inclusion in the taxonomy.
  • The reference layer does not contain the full text of the regulations. Instead, it points to source documents by identifying their name and indicating the relevant paragraphs and clauses. This connection is created using "concept-reference" arcrole. There are several types of references that could be provided for each element.

3. XBRLとは何か:


  • XBRLの仕組み:
  • Semantic WebとしてのXMLをベースに開発された。但し、業界ごとのルールでXML標準が乱立している現状から、XBRLは、監督当局への報告義務による世界標準を意図して拡張を規定して設計された。即ち、Business Reportingの標準言語化を目指した。
  • Taxonomy (概念定義; 概念同士の関係や追加的な情報)
    • XML Schema: 勘定科目や注記事項の定義
    • XLink: リンクベースとはLink Databaseであって、表示・計算・定義・ラベル・表示の定義。Formula Linkによって決められたルールに反するデータははじかれるので、自動チェック可能。
  • Instance (報告文書; 報告されるFactやその関連情報)
    • Fact: 報告する内容・数値事項
    • Context: Factが報告される背景な文脈;企業名・年度・予実
    • Unit: 通貨・面積・人数など単位
    • Footnote: 注記


  >Top 命名規約(決算短信サマリー):以下の3項目を組合せたもの
TDnet (決算短信)とEDINET (有価証券報告書)のContext IDの命令規約とは微妙に異なる
1 {相対年度} CurrentYear 当年度
  TDNet CurrentQuater 当年度期首からの累計期間
  TDNet CurrentAccumulatedQ2 当年度期首から第2四半期までの推計値
  TDNet NextYear 次年度
  TDNet NextAccumulatedQ2 次年度期初から第2四半期までの累計値
2   Interim 中間期
3 EDNET Prior1Year 前年度
  TDNet PriorYear 前年度
  TDNet PriorQuater 四半期短信サマリーにおける前年度期首からの累計期間
  TDNet PriorAccumulatedQ2 前年度期初から第2四半期までの累計値
4 EDNET Prior1Interim 前中間期
5 EDNET Prior2Year 前々年度
6 EDNET Prior{数値}Year {数値}年度前
  TDNet PriorYear  
7   CurrentYTD 当四半期累計期間
8   CurrentQuater 当四半期会計期間
9   Prior{数値}YTD {数値}年度前同四半期累計期間
10   Prior{数値}Quarter {数値}年度前同四半期会計期間
11   LastQuater 前四半期会計期間
12   Prior{数値}LastQuater {数値}年度前の前四半期会計期間
13 {連結・個別} Consolidated 連結
14   NonConsolidated 個別
15 {期間・時点} Instant 時点
16   Duration 期間
  コンテキストID CurrentYearConsolidatedInstant
  シナリオ(scenario) 設定なし
  説明 報告対象となる会計年度(CurrentYear)の期末日時点(Instant)の連結(Consolidated)の財務情報を報告するために利用します。

Prior1YearNonConsolidatedDuration (EDINET: XBRL InstanceのContex ID命名規約)
PriorYearNonConsolidatedDuration (TDNet: XBRL InstanceのContexID命名規約)

  シナリオ(scenario) <jpfr-oe:NonConsolidated/>
  説明 報告対象となる会計年度の前期(Prior1Year)の期間(Duration)の個別(NonConsolidated)の財務情報を報告するために利用します。
  EDINET (有価証券報告書)  
1 {報告書} asr 有価証券報告書(Annual Securites Report)→Form-10K
    q{数値}r 四半期報告書(Quarterly Report) →Form-10Q
    ssr 半期報告書(Semiannual Securities Report)
    srs 有価証券届出書(Securities Registration Statement)
  {EDINET/Fund Code} E{数字}/G{数字} EDNET Code (E+数字5桁), Fund Code (G+数字5桁)
  {追番} {番号} 3桁の数字(000-999) 複数の財務諸表を区別
  {報告対象期間期末日} YYYY-MM-DD 報告書対象期間の期末日、四半期報告書は四半期会計期間の末日
  {提出回数} {数字}

2桁の数字{01-99}; XBRL dataの再提出毎に1ずつ増加

  {提出日} YYYY-MM-DD 報告書の提出日;修正再提出は当該修正再提出日
  >Top Inline XBRL <Fig.> 人間が読むことができるXBRL;報告書=Dataとなる
  TDNet (決算短信) XBRL Instance  
  {報告書} [{期区分}{連結・非連結区分}]{報告区分}
  {期区分} a 通期
    s 特定事業会社第2四半期
    q 四半期
  {連結・非連結} c 連結
    n 非連結
  {報告区分} edjp 決算短信(Earnings Document)(日本基準)
    edus 決算短信(Earnings Document)(米国基準)
    edif 決算短信(Earnings Document)(国際会計基準)
    rvff 業績予想修正(ReVision of Financial Forecast)の通知
    rvdf 配当予想修正(ReVision of Dividend Forecast)の通知
    rvfc 新業績予想修正(ReVision of ForeCast)の通知
  {報告詳細区分} sm 決算短信サマリ(SuMmary)部分
    fr 決算短信財務諸表(Financial Report)部分
    nt 注記(NoTe)部分
    qi 定性(Qualitative Information)情報部分
  期末日・提出日 YYYY-MM-DD 報告期間の期末日・提出日
  提出回数 {数字} 2桁の数字(01-99)
  開示番号 {数字} 14桁の数字;{提出日8桁}{3から開始する連番1桁}{証券コード5桁}
  20190331380010 2019/3/31に第1回提出・提出企業伊藤忠商事
  Reference Link (参照リンク) EDNet Taxonomy  
1   Publisher 発行元
2   Name 規則名称(YYYY-MM-DD)
3   IssueDate 交付日
4   Chapter
5   Article
6   Paragraph
7   Subparagraph
8   Clause 号の内訳
9   Subclause 号の内訳の内訳
10   Appendix 別表
11   Number
12   Example 設例
    IndustryAbbreviation 業種略号
  • Inline XBRL (タグ付XHTML)


  • 商品及び製品 <MerchandiseAndFinishedGoods> 9,642
  • 仕掛品
    <WorkiInProcess> 3,857
  • 原材料及び貯蔵品
    <RawMaterialsAndSupplies> 3,297

  • <Inventories> 16,792


  • 情報洪水に如何に対処するか。
    • 情報洪水の中心は膨大な注記情報など非財務情報。
    • 一次情報は、アナリストなどの加工を経て膨大な二次情報として流通する。その際、情報の錯綜・誤解が生じ、メタデータをチェックして、真偽を確認する必要性
    • 金融商品の証券化にともなうサブプライム問題 (2001エンロン、2008リーマンショックを踏まえて)
    • 内部統制に基づく情報開示ルール
    • 従来はWeb上での公開のため、HTMLやPDFフォーマットに変換していたが、XBRLによってこの工程が不要。
  • XBRL導入効果(米国FDICの場合)
    • TCOが$65M→$26Mへ経費削減
    • タイムリーな情報公開: 45日→2日
    • 数値エラー: 18,000件→ほぼゼロへ
    • 再利用性の向上: 標準XBRLツールで加工可能
    • 変更の場合XBRL Taxonomyのみ変更すればよく、より頻繁なシステム更新が可能
    • 報告情報連鎖イノベーション
    • NPO活動報告 (資金集め、説明責任等)
    • VCのための情報発信
    • 社会企業家への事業支援


>Top 4. How to deal with flood of reported information?:

  • Information released by corporations:
    • Financial Information: Profit & Loss, Asset, Cash,...
    • Non-financial Information: Information of major projects & contracts, construction or disposal of equipment & facility, shareholders.
  • Reporting of financial information based on XBRL: mostly numerical data
    • 2001: Financial Services Agency: EDNET
    • 2003: Tokyo Stock Exchange: TDNet
    • 2004: National Tax Administration Agency: e-Tax
  • >Top Reporting of non-financial information: more serious situation of information flood: particularly 'Note Information' partly remarked on the financial data is more important.
    • Particular reasons related to the major difference from the original estimate.
    • Particular assumptions related to the referred figure.
    • Major reasons or break down which attributed the latest figure.
    • References to the risk factors or risk correlations.
    • Particular reference to the source of information.
  • Flood mechanism: 2009/7 workshop by XBRL researchers revealed:
    • Release of 8 kinds of reports required by laws by corporations may affect a million of related information.
    • This phenomenon is caused by:
      • Repetition of the same information not only by public organization but various custodians, brokers.
      • Secondary information is released by various analysts with revision or comments.
      • Intricacy, misunderstanding, or errors in transcription occurs during these processes.
      • Deviation of timing of publishing information.
  • >Top Semantic Web:
    • HTML can describe the layout of expression on the web; which cannot have the meaning of information.
    • Though XML can include semantic description, it is flexibly extensible in expression; which may cause various XML standards are made according to each industry.
    • XBRL adopted such semantic web approach, and is made it to a rule based on the world standard.
      • XBRL regulated the rules of extension, considering interoperability of disclosed information, reports to financial regulatory organizations, and registration information, etc.

4. 報告情報の洪水への対処:

  • Financial Services Agency: 金融庁
  • Tokyo Stock Exchange: 東京証券取引所
  • 注記情報がむしろ重要
  • HTML: Web上の表現のみ
  • XML: 意味情報もたせたが拡張性の自由度もあり、対象は、特定領域のみ。
  • XBRL: XMLに基づくも、拡張の仕方を規定。分野業界国境を超えて企業組織の財務情報+非債務情報の報告形式に相互運用性をもたせた。
  • 米国金融規制当局
    • FRB: 連邦準備制度理事会→日銀
    • FDIC: 連邦預金保険公社→預金保険機構
    • OCC: 通貨監督庁→財務省外局



>Top 5. Global innovation based on XBRL:

  • Common issues in using XBRL:
    • Open or Closed:
      • beneficiary of XBRL reporting is open or closed.
      • storage problem of the reports
    • Static or Dynamic:
      • XBRL taxonomy is static (unchangeable) or dynamic (changeable)
      • Dynamic system is more difficult; to what extent the expansion of taxonomy is allowed.
    • Simple process or Complicated process:
      • Simple (data volume is 10-20), or complicated (several hundred data)
      • XBRL system tends to be heavier to the simple processing.
    • Lower or Higher Reuse Rate:
      • Various formats of expression are allowed or not.
      • Trade off of XBRL taxonomy:
        flexible (meaningful reuse) or stable of the system (meaningless reuse).
  • >Top Use cases of XBRL:
    • US:
      • <Public>
      • FDIC receives quarterly Call Reports from 8000 banks in US.
      • 2008 SEC: made it obligatory 500 major companies to report based on XBRL.
      • NV state:
      • FHA (Federal Housing Administration)
      • <Private>
      • UTC (United Technologies Corp.); effect is written in 'ROI on XBRL'
      • MIX (Microfinance Information Exchange); established similar EDGAR system of MIX
      • Deloitte Australia
      • Morgan Stanley
      • PWC; iDP (iDataPlatform) related to IFRS and USGAAP taxonomy.
    • EU: CEBS (Committee of European Banking Supervisors):
      • already using report based on IFRS and new BIS banking regulations
      • first is Belgium, then Spain, France, Germany, Poland, and Luxemburg.
    • Netherlands:
      • Water Board
      • 2004: NTP (Netherlands Taxonomy Project), now 2007 SBR (Standard Business Reporting), affecting Australia or Singapore SBR project.
    • Software application:
        • SAP, Oracle can export/import XBRL format.

5. 世界のXBRL型ソリューション:


>Top 6. XBRL as defacto standard:

  • XBRL Taxonomy: Taxonomy and Instance (definition and entity) cover all information.
    • Taxonomy Schema: defines financial vocabulary such as sales, sales cost, liquid asset, etc.
    • Taxonomy Linkbase: defines relationship (tree-structure), or calculation formula.
    • Instance: a context (time, period, which company, etc.) information.
  • XBRL Linkbase:
    • Nested structure of XML can express single relationship only, but financial information needs to express multiple relations (rules), such as:
      • Net profit is defined 1) sales minus all expenses and taxes, and 2) difference of net capital of previous BS and present BS.
    • XBRL adopted similar mechanism of Chemical formula using atomic symbol; which is more flexible in defining financial information.
    • Taxonomy can include related rules other than relationship.
      • E.g.: Tangible fix asset needs to include depreciation method, durable life, and asset class.
  • Sub-rules in each industry:
    • E.g.: Common practice in construction industry: sales can be recorded according to percentage of completion.
    • E.g.: Accounting title 'Data Communication Facility' of NTTData means a service including ownership, development, maintenance, and operation.
  • Variety of Taxonomy:
    • Japanese rules in accounting principles are about 2,500.
    • Accounting titles of common practice of individual industry are about 2,200.
    • These 4,700 titles were selected from as much as 50,000 candidate of titles.

6. XBRLをデファクトスタンダードに:

  • Does standardization mean simplification of taxonomy?


>Top 7. Relationship of IFRS and XBRL:

  • IFRS Framework: Chapter 1: The Objective of general purpose financial reporting
    • The primary users of general purpose financial reporting are present and potential investors, lenders and other creditors, who use that information to make decisions about buying, selling or holding equity or debt instruments, providing or settling loans or other forms of credit, or exercising rights to vote on, or otherwise influence, management’s actions that affect the use of the entity’s economic resources. [1.2]
    • The primary users need information about the resources of the entity not only to assess an entity's prospects for future net cash inflows but also how effectively and efficiently management has discharged their responsibilities to use the entity's existing resources (i.e., stewardship). [1.3-1.4]
    • The IFRS Framework notes that general purpose financial reports cannot provide all the information that users may need to make economic decisions. They will need to consider pertinent information from other sources as well. [1.6]
    • The IFRS Framework notes that other parties, including prudential and market regulators, may find general purpose financial reports useful. However, these are not considered a primary user and general purpose financial reports are not primarily directed to regulators or other parties. [1.10]
  • Portion of non-financial information:
    • As not only XBRL-basen financial information, but also non-financial information is getter important as a useful information for IFRS users, further expansion of XBRL-based disclosure is considered.
    • It is getting difficult for investors to use effectively enormous paper-based disclosure of report made based on principle rule.
      • XBRL functions effectively for smooth implementation of IFRS.
      • Japan had delayed in adopting IFRS, but has progressed and contributed in using XBRL.

7. IFRSとXBRLの関係:

  • IFRS基準書フレームワーク:
    • 財務諸表報告の主たる利用者は、現在および将来の投資者・債権者であり、彼らが株式・債務の売買・与信の意思決定に役立つ情報を提供する。
    • 主たる利用者は、当該企業の将来のCFを評価するだけでなく、企業の現在の資源活用の評価材料としても有効であること。
    • IFRSフレームワークはユーザにとって経済意思決定に必要な全ての情報を提供することはできないので、適宜他の情報も検討すべきである。
    • IFRSフレームワークは、市場の規制当局に対してこれらの財務情報は有用ではあるが、この財務報告の主たるユーザとみなしている訳ではない。


>Top 8. Future of Reporting:

  • Productivity of white-color tasks:
    • XML is mainly used in the back-office tasks regarding transaction information, while XBRL is used in the front-end white-color tasks regarding reported information.
      • White-collar tasks are the works creating new value or mechanism to create it.
      • XBRL makes to digitize such creating tasks, which means a dawn of new reporting age.
  • Whitelist or Blacklist:
  •   Target Definition Share Reporting
    Whitelist Favorable client Difficult routine research no incentive to share difficult definition & no comprehensive database
    Blacklist Unfavorable client Easy routine research incentive to share easier definition & making database
    • Whitelist information (against blacklist) is useful to find actively new client or partners to deal with; which is equivalent to business know-how.
    • Whitelist information is rather difficult to collect and share, because there is no common definition who is white.
  • Covenants:
    • Borrower does not provide mortgage or guarantee, but agrees 'covenant clause' stating to promise certain financial ratio, etc. in the financial agreement; if the borrower breach the covenant clause, the loan must be repaid.
    • Covenants clause usually includes: 1) must submit financial report, 2) negative pledge (not place a mortgage), 3) asset disposal (limit to assign or transfer particular asset), 4) financial covenants (restrictions), 5) rating triage by a certain rating firm 6) to maintain the project, and 7) to keep financial level
  • US SEC EDGAR Database:
    • is accumulating XBRL data, which will be used by the user's own database.

8. レポーティングの未来:

  • warranty: 自分の物に対する保証
  • gurantee: 第三者の物・行動に対する保証
  • condition: 契約における不可欠の要素。違反は契約解除権を発生させる
  • warranty: 付随的な契約条項。違反の場合は損害賠償のみ。
  • representation: 契約締結時における過去・現在の事実表明
  • covenants: 契約締結後の行動・状態についての保証; a clause in a contract drawn up by deed.


  • It is a keen insight that XBRL has been expanded based on XML technology, which is also extention of HTML technology.
  • Furthermore, it is also awakening that the essencial output of white collar is Reporting; if it became XBRL Reporting information, the productivity of white collar could be raised remarkably.
  • XMLがHTML技術の拡張であり、そのXML技術をベースにXBRLが拡張されたことがまさに慧眼である。
  • 更にホワイトカラーの本質がレポーティングにあるとしたことも目から鱗である。もしXBRLレポーティング情報となれば、ホワイトカラーの生産性は飛躍的に上昇することになろう。

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