>Top 3. What is XBRL?:
- XBRL allows semantic meaning commonly required in business reporting, which is based XML technologies such as XML Schema, XLink, XPath, and Namespaces.
- XBRL specification is develope and publish by XBRL International, Inc. (XII)
- Latest version: XBRL 2.1
- Taxonomy: Definition of financial terms; such as
- NetIncomeOrLoss = Net Income (loss) (English label)
- SalesNet = Sales Net (English label)
- Instance: Reporting document with filename '.xbrl'; or fact reported or related information
- Tasks with or without using XBRL: <Fig.>
- When use XBRL, value-added tasks can be increased, while routine tasks be decreased.
- XBRL instance begins with <xbrl> root element. There may be more than one XBRL instance embedded in a larger XML document, holding following information.
- Business Facts - can be divided into: Items are facts holding a single value, or Tuples holding multiple values, represented by a single XML element containing nested Items or Tuples.
- Contexts define entity, e.g., company or individual, the period of time, an optional scenario (weather the business values reported are actual, projected, or budgeted), and date & time information.
- Units define the units used by numeric or fractional facts within the document, such as USD, shares. XBRL allows more complex units if necessary.
- Footnotes use XLink to associate one or more facts with some content.
- References to XBRL taxonomies, typically through schema references. It is also possible to link directly to a linkbase.
- Taxonomy schemas define Item and Tuple concepts using <xsd: element> elements. Concepts provide name for the fact and indicate whether tuple or an item, data type (monetary, numeric, fractional, or textual), and potentially more metadata. Items and Tuples can be regarded as implementations of concepts, or specific instances of a concept. In addition to defining concept, taxonomy schemas reference linkbase documents. Tuples instances are 1..n relationships with their parents; their metadata is simply the collection of their attributes.
- Linkbases are a collection of Links, which themselves are a collection of locators, arcs, and potentially resources. Locator are elements that essentially reference a concept and provide an arbitrary label for it. In turn, arcs are elements indication that a concept links to another concept by referencing the labels defined by the locators. Some arcs link concepts to other concepts. Other arcs link concepts to resources, the most common of which are human-readable labels for the concepts. XBRL 2.1 specification defines five different kinds of linkbases. (Label Linkbase; Reference Linkbase; Calculation Linkbase; Definition Linkbase; Presentation Linkbase)
- This linkbase provides human readable strings for concepts. Using the label linkbase, multiple languages can be supported, as well as multiple strings within each language.
- XBRL aims to become a worldwide standard for electronic business reporting. This requires taxonomies to present business data in many different languages. Therefore, it is important to be able to create an element that is assigned with labels for different languages.
- There may also be different labels for different purposes. All labels are stored and linked to the elements in a label linkbase.
- Elements defined in a schema are built to convey accounting meaning to computers. In order to make it easier for computers to process their names, they have to obey some rules. For example, the use of spaces is not allowed so 'Cash and Cash Equivalents' would be named 'CashAndCashEquivalents'.
- Additionally, big taxonomies such as IFRS obey specific rules of naming and labelling to ensure consistency within the schema. For example, there could be a list of words that are excluded from the names, e.g., :and:, "of" ..., or words that appear only in a particular order (i.e., 'Net' or 'Total' at the end of the label after a comma).
- In the label linkbase, elements are connected to human readable labels using "concept-label" arcrole.
||XBRL and XML
- To distinguish between languages, XBRL uses the XML attribute lang. Taxonomy creators may also define different labels for one element.
- One of the ideas of XBRL is that the information about the period and currency for which the element is reported is not contained within an element definition but is described by a context in instance documents.
- In financial reporting on the other hand, many terms express the date for which they are being reported, for instance Property, Plant and Equipment at the beginning of year and Property, Plant and Equipment at the end of year.
- XBRL allows the creation of different labels depending on the context in which an element will be used.
- This linkbase associates concepts with citations of some body of authoritative literature.
- Financial concepts appearing on business reports more often than not stem from regulatory documents issued by authorities. For example, the IFRS Taxonomy describes financial reports prepared based on IFRSs (Bound Volume).
- Elements defined by this taxonomy refer to the specific terms and concepts explained in the standards. For this reason, a taxonomy is often provided with a reference linkbase.
- Present relationships between elements and external regulations or standards (the other solution is to enclose documentation in label linkbase). This helps instance creators and users understand the intended meaning of each element and provides support for its inclusion in the taxonomy.
- The reference layer does not contain the full text of the regulations. Instead, it points to source documents by identifying their name and indicating the relevant paragraphs and clauses. This connection is created using "concept-reference" arcrole. There are several types of references that could be provided for each element.
- Semantic WebとしてのXMLをベースに開発された。但し、業界ごとのルールでXML標準が乱立している現状から、XBRLは、監督当局への報告義務による世界標準を意図して拡張を規定して設計された。即ち、Business Reportingの標準言語化を目指した。
- Taxonomy (概念定義; 概念同士の関係や追加的な情報)
- XML Schema: 勘定科目や注記事項の定義
- XLink: リンクベースとはLink Databaseであって、表示･計算･定義･ラベル･表示の定義。Formula Linkによって決められたルールに反するデータははじかれるので、自動チェック可能。
- Instance (報告文書; 報告されるFactやその関連情報)
- Fact: 報告する内容･数値事項
- Context: Factが報告される背景な文脈；企業名･年度･予実
- Unit: 通貨･面積･人数など単位
- Footnote: 注記