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An EV has come to my home.

- New life with the most advanced electric vehicle -

Cat: ENE
Pub: 2019
#: 1901a

Kanzo Kobayashi (小林寛三)

An EV has come to my home. EVが我が家にやって来た
  1. Introduction:
  2. An article of the Guardian (2018/7/8):
  3. The Battle over EV:
  4. Comparison of EV and PHV
  5. Battery for EV:
  6. Powertrain of EV:
  7. Energy efficiency:
  8. <Cf:> FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle):
  1. 序:
  2. ガーディアン誌の記事 (2018/7/8):
  3. EVを巡る闘い:
  4. EVとPHVの比較:
  5. EV用バッテリー:
  6. EVの伝動機構:
  7. エネルギー効率:
  8. <比較>水素燃料自動車:
  • EV has changed my way of thinking and life:
    • EV is not only for future vehicle, but useful for present.
    • Mobility is easy, cheap, and interesting.
    • Electricity is rapid, smooth, and quiet.
    • EV shows us a new horizon of new economy and ecosystem.
    • Petroleum should should be a more chemically useful material which is simply wasteful to burn.
    • Japan had been advanced in making small and efficient generator, motor and battery, but why ...
    • Car should be produced by combination of small number of elaborate parts, not by hybridizing many parts with existing technology.
    • EV remains many unused spaces in the engine room, but Hybrid car contains full of parts, which cannot be improved by making parts smaller or making the car itself larger.
  • EVは、考え方と生活を変えてくれる。
    • EVは、未来だけでなく、現在役立つ車だ。
    • 移動することは簡単で、安価で、楽しい。
    • 電気は、速くて、スムーズで、静か。
    • EVは、新たな経済とエコシステムを見せてくれる。
    • 石油は、単に燃やすだけではもったいない、もっと化学的に有用な物質だ。
    • 日本は、小さくて効率的な発電機、モーター、電気の製造先進国だったのに...
    • 車は、少数の精緻な部品の組合わせによって作るべきで、既存技術で多くの部品をハイブリッド的に作るべきではない。
    • EVは、エンジンルームは隙間が多い。ハイブリット車は、部品が満載で、改良するには、各部品を小型化するか車を大型化するしかない。
; AAA Report; Akira Yoshino; Android Auto/Apple Carplay; Backcast forecast; BEV; BMS; CASE; Chademo; e-Pedal; ESG investment; EV sales forecast; FCV; ICE; Induction Motor; Inverter; Leaf e/e+; LIB; Nikola Tesla; NEV Credit; Norway EV; PHV; Pro-Pilot; Regenerative Brake; Sales of cars; Sales of Sedan in CA 2018; Seven years to shift; V2H; WLTP; ;

>Top 0. Introduction:

  • In 1997, Toyota Prius, the first hybrid car was published. Its CM was impressive; where the Astro Boy of Tezuka Osamu claimed, "This car run by electricity and gasoline; such a new car was published just in time for 21st century."
    • The 100 % EV car (called BEV, Battery Electric Vehcle) was not published by Toyota Motor, but by Mitsubishi Motor and Nissan Motor.
    • The pioneer of Hybrid car was still developing Hybrid car even now. Toyota acknowledges the impact of once in a century revolution of car industry, that is CASE (Connectivity, Autonomous driving, Shared usage, and EV), but is obviously not a front runner of EV.
    • EV should be the most important change of such CASE changes; EV affects all other changes of C, A, and S.
  • Norway is the most advanced country of 100% EV:
    • In 2040, some countries aim to stop to sell combustion engine vehicles.
    • In 2013/9, EV+PEV in Norway shares 8%; amazingly increased 60% in 2018.
    • Norway is an oil producing country, but promotes EV production.
    • Canada, Iceland shares 8%; China 3%, US 2% in EV share.
    • German car makers could not maintain the present scale of production, if they didn't shift drastically to EV production; the major Japanese car makers' situation are almost same.
  • Nissan Leaf, a pure electric vehicle, was introduced in 2010 as the world's first mass-produced EV.
    • Forthcoming energy revolution will begin in 1) Sustainable energy, 2) Battery, 3) EV; thus our society evacuating from depending oil resources.
    • Nissan published the first Leaf in 2010/12; now fully model changed second version was published in 2017/10.; totally sold 100K in Japan, globally more than 320K Leaf vehicles (as of 2018/3).
  • Nissan Leaf Specification:
    • Dimensions: 445L, 155H, 177W cm; 1,490-1680 kg weight with cargo capacity 668L
    • Mechanical:
      • DriveTrain: Front-wheel drive
      • Motor Engine: 80kW/280Nm
      • Transmission: 1-speed automatic
    • Suspension & Steering:
      • Wheel Type: 17 inch aluminum-alloy
      • Power Steering: Speed-senstive electric power steering
      • Tire Pressure: Pressure monitoring system
    • Interior:
      • Audio Monitor: 7 inch audio display
      • Cruise Control: Intelligent cruise control (ProPilot assistance)
    • Safety:
      • Anti-Lock Brakes: 4-wheel ABS; 4-wheel disc
    • Energy Supply:
      • Display the location of charging stations
      • Share energy between car and home (C2H)
  • Chinese EV:
  • VW (retains 550K labors): Toyota retains 380K labors.
    • German government decided that production of gasoline engines will be terminated by 2030.
    • Restructuring of ten thousand labors in Germany will be occurred; shifting the engine production to Czech, while German factories will be concentrate to produce EV.
    • Labors producing engines will be no chance to move other industries, because engine production itself will be drastically diminished.
  • GM's restructuring:
    • will fire 14K labors by the end of 2019, closing 7 factories in US, to shift to EV production.
  • >Top ESG (Environment, Society, & Governance) Investment:
    EV industry is focussed from ESG investment viewpoint:


0. 序:

# if sales of EV 2017 2018 Share (%)
China 579,000 1,053,000 4.4
US 198,350 361,000 2.1
France 118,770   2.1
Norway 62,260 73,000 49.0
Germany 54,560   2.0
Japan 54,100   1.0
UK 47,250   2.5
Australia 2,280    
India 2,000    
Brazil 360    
Auto Co. # sales 2018.1-12
TESLA (US) 245,240  
BYD (比亚迪) 227,364  
BAIC (北京) 164,958  
Nissan 96,949  
Roewe (上海) 92,790  
Chery (奇瑞) 65,798  
Hyundai 53,114  
  Leaf (e type) Leaf (e+ type)
battery capacity 40kWh, 350V 62kWh, 350V
battery cell maker AESC LG Chem
battery module 96 series x 3 parallel =288
motor power 110 kW
(147 HP)
160 kW (217HP)
acceleration (0-400 km/h) 8.5 sec 6.5 sec
Range (EPA) 241 km 362 km
Internal charger 6.6 kW 11-22 kW
DC Fast charging 50 kW 100 kW
Max charging rate 102 kW
Weight 1,490kg 1,670kg
Thermal Management System (TMS) no no
Price (MSRF) €30K €35K
  • EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency)
  • Impact of EV Revolution:
  • EVrevolution


>Top 1. An article of the Guardian (2018/7/8):

  • Clean, efficient, silent, relentless... the cars of the future will all be powered by electric motors. Yet this advanced technology actually dates back to Victorian times when battery- powered horseless carriages shimmied around the streets of London and Paris. The first land speed record was set in 1898 by Count de Chasseloup-Laubat in an electrically driven Jeantaud – he briefly touched 39mph. Fast forward a century and we still have electric vehicles buzzing about our streets
  • and none has been more successful or influential than the Nissan Leaf. More than 300,000 have been sold since it was first launched in 2011, making it the most popular EV of all time. Building on that success is the second generation of the Leaf – and it improves on its older sibling in almost every way. It’s bigger, faster, more comfortable and more pleasant to drive. It travels further between charges and it achieves 80% of its full charge in just 40 minutes. This means that, though almost all the driving we do is short distance and EVs can cope with that, the promise of longer-distance cruising is now tantalisingly close. You could drive the 400 miles from London to Edinburgh under full electric power with just a 40-minute coffee stop en route (you never want to pass Tebay services anyway).
  • If you have never driven an all-electric car before, it can take a while to get used to. The utter silence is unnerving. I am never sure if I have turned the car on or not. The moment you touch the throttle and it creeps forward always gives me a small jolt of panic. It feels as if you are rolling downhill with the handbrake off. Press the pedal harder and the instant torque and smooth acceleration is addictive. Electric motors don’t have gears, so the swoosh from 0-60 is completely seamless.
  • >Top Nissan has worked hard to make the Leaf so much more than simply a car with an electric motor. It is brimming with aids to make your ride safer, more connected and more effortless. The car has ProPilot, a suite of systems that deals with everything from traffic jams to keeping your distance on the motorway. It will steer for you, park for you and even bring you to an emergency stop. It’s autonomous driving as far as the law currently allows. Or you can switch off all the gadgetry and have fun driving it like an electric dodgem. The heavy floor-mounted battery creates a low centre of gravity so it corners with virtually no body roll.
  • >Top One thing which will throw you is its e-Pedal. Flick this button and you can drive the car with one pedal. You press the throttle as usual but remove your foot and the car applies automatic regenerative braking. The quicker you lift your foot the heavier the braking.
  • The Leaf swept up dozens of awards the moment it was launched – all well deserved. But the true measure of its standing in the automotive world is that it in no way feels like a gimmicky electric car. It feels like a real car for the real world. Count de Chasseloup-Laubat would have loved it...
  • >Top Email Martin at martin.love@observer.co.uk or follow him on Twitter@MartinLove166.
    This article was amended on 12 July 2018 to clarify the range figure. The Nissan Leaf has a range of 235 miles NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) or 168 miles WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure) on a single charge. Leaf is the first Nissan vehicle, and the first EV, to transition to WLTP. The WLTP protocol is a different, more realistic way to measure the range of vehicles. You can read more about it here: wltpfacts.eu

1. ガーディアン誌の記事 2018/7/8):

  • クリーン、効率的、静寂、堅牢な未来車は電気自動車によって実現される。この技術の起源は、ロンドンやパリの街路を振動しながらバッテリーで走行したビクトリア朝にまで遡る。フランス人のCount de Chasseloup-Laubatの製作したEV車の速度は、1898年には63km/hだったとの記録がある。1世紀前に既にEVは走っていたのだ。
  • 所で日産Leafほど成功したEV車は今までなかった。2011年に発売後すでに30万台を販売し、最も人気のあるEV車となった。特に第二世代のEVは、先代より改善し、大きく速く快適になった。40分で80%の充電が可能となり、長距離はやや厳しいが、短距離の運転は全く問題なくなった。LondonからEdinburghまで400kmが40分のコヒー店での待ち時間の充電で行ける。
  • 今までEV車の経験がない場合は、慣れるまで少し時間がかかるかも知れない。運転中の静寂は驚くほどである。エンジンがONかOFFかすら気づかない程である。加速して走行すると坂道を下るような感じがする。アクセルペダルを踏み込むとトルクは強烈ですぐに加速する。EV車には変速ギアがない。0-60への加速は全く無段階で加速する。
  • 日産は、LEAFの技術を結集して、より安全にコネクテッドに楽な運転ができるようなEV車を開発してきた。その一つが"ProPilot"機能であり、これは交通渋滞中の走行車線で前の車に距離を取りながらハンドルを自動操作し、先行者の減速や停止にも追従して減速・停止できる機能である。現行法で許される範囲での自動運転と言えよう。またハンドル側のコンピュータ操作で楽しむことができる。また床下に電池を搭載したことで車体が低重心となり滑らかなコーナリングが得られる。
  • また"e-Pedal"の機能は、1ペダルでの運転が可能となる。アクセルを踏めば加速、戻せばエンジンブレーキで減速され、充電できる。速くアクセルから足を話せば強力なブレーキとなる。
  • 日産LEAFは、数多くの先進技術の表彰されたが正にそれらに値する。自動車業界での真の評価は、その新規性というより、現実の車としての実用に耐えるかどうかである。EVの発明者であるCount de Chasseloupは、自分の発明したEVをこよなく愛していたが...
  • 日産LEAFの走行距離は、1回の充電で378km (NEDC) または270km (WLTP)である。WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehcle Test Procedure)はより現実的な電費である。
  • simplicity: a clarity experienced by removing the unimportant to make room for things that matter.
  • Autonomous drive:
  • Electrification
  • Connected Car Technologies
  • 62kWh Battery (e+ type)
    • 458km (WLTC mode)
    • 570km (JC08 mode)
    • 60min (Quick charger)
  • 40kWh Battery (e type)
    • 322km (WLTC mode)
    • 400km (JC08 mode)
    • 40min (rapid charger)
  • Rapid Charger: 'Charge de Move'
    • 500V, 125A (up to 400A) DC
    • 50kW (up to 150kW)
  • Quick charging: 7,200 in Japan

>Top 2. The battle over EV:

  • Expansion of EV (+PHEV) production:
    • China: 777K (2017), EU 278K, US 200K, Japan 56K.
  • EV vs. Gasoline car:
    • China NEV Restriction: must produce NEV:
      • Easy license of number plate for NEV
      • Subsidy upto ¥1M for a NEV
      • Priority lane for NEV
      • Compulsory production share of NEV or penalty (NEV Credit, or Zero emmission Credit)
      • Regulation of expanding ICE (Internal Combusion Engine) car factory, subject to efficiency of car, more ration of EV production, and more than 3% R&D; Cap & Trade System
      • It is said only 吉利汽车(Geely Automotive) and 上海汽车集团(SAIC, Shanghai Automotive Industry) can clear these guidelines.
    • Min. production: 10%/2019, 12%/2020, ...
    • NEV minus credit: 2-5 credit/BEV, 2 credit/PHEV, -5 credit/FCEV
  • Battle-2: Battery revolution:
    • Tesla Factory: Freemont, CA, USA
    • Tesla Gigafactory-1: Sparks, NV, USA
    • Tesla Gigafactory-2: Buffalo, NY, USA
    • Tesla Gigafactory-3 +Model-3/-Y Assembly: Lingang (临港), Shanghai, China
    • Battery cost: $227/kWh-2016, $190/2020, $100/2030 (40 kWh/¥400K)
    • Asahi Kasei:
  • Key car market: US, Europe, China, Japan, Australia, etc.
    • Car maker:
      • Audi: E-tron (90 kWh)
      • Mercedes: EQC (80 kWh)
      • Porsche: Taycan
      • Jaguar: I-Pace (90 kWh)
      • Nissan: Leaf (40/62 kWh)
      • Mitsubishi: I-MiEV (Compact car) 16 kWh
      • VW: e-Golf; Volkswagen I.D.
      • Volvo: XC40; XC90
      • GM: Chevrolet Bolt EV
    • EV new challenger:
      • US Tesla: Roadstar, Model-S, Model-X (75/100 kWh), Model-3, Model-Y (SUV)
        • Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla aims to be a mass car producer.
        • Tesla's sole plant in Fremont, CA, reached a weekly output of about 7,000 cars. (rank 145h among 70 auto plants in North America)
        • 7,000 cars in one go-for-broke week; averagely 5,000 Model 3 plus alpha.
      • US (China capital): Liucid, Lucid air
      • US: Faraday Future, FF91 (130 kWh)
      • US: Rivian, pick-up track
      • US: Workforce, RIT(105/135/180 kWh)
      • UK: Dyson V10
      • China: NIO ES8 (half price of Tesla Model-X)
      • China: Byton, M-Byte
      • China: Xpeng (小鹏汽车), G3 (SUV)
  • >Top Ecosystem: Charging spot vs. Gas station
    • Dealer: earns by maintenance of gas engine cars
    • US Challenge: (<named after Nikola Tesla, electrical engineer); basically AWD
      • Tesla Model-S (Sedan); 60D, 75D, 90D, P90D, P100D
      • Tesla Model-X (Croosover Utility Vehicle, XUV)
      • Tesla Model-3; 50-75D?
      • Tesla Roadster, 200kWh
      • Battery Active Controller
      • GM Chevrolet Bolt; 60kWh, 383km
      • Rivian; Pick-up, AWD
  • Chinese Challenge:
    • NIO (蔚来汽车,Temsent), ES8; 70kWh
    • Byton, M-Byte; digital rounge with 50-inch touch screen
    • Xpeng (小鹏汽车, Alibaba)
    • Lucid, Lucid Air
    • Faraday Future, FF91
    • Chinese EV Promotion Policy: NEV (New Electric Vehcles)
      • Cap and Trade Policy: penalty for car maker in China: 10% in 2019, and 12% in 2020, and then 20% by 2025 (7M cars) increasing the obligatory production ration of NEV in China.; Bloomberg forecasts 2.2M EV will be sold in China.
      • Subsidy by government:
      • Issue of Nuber Plate:
        • In Shanghai, it takes $14,000 to get the plate, but EV is free.
  • >Top Software in a car:
    • Google: Android Auto
    • Apple: CarPlay
  • Environment Policy
    • Norway EV 2013/9: EV, PHV 8% share 5 years ago; increased 60% in 2018.
      • 2018/3: sold BEV 37%, PHEV 19% (Total: 56%)
      • Diesel engine car will be disappeard from the market by 2020, and gasoline engine by 2022.
      • Toyota is dropping sales of HV nearly half from 2016.
    • Canada: 8%
    • Iceland: 8%
    • China: 3%
    • US: 2% →25%
  • Unrealistic FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle)
    • concept of H2 society: neglecting new energy & battery production
    • Japan: world No.1 battery developer
    • Return of oil dollar to Japan

2. EVを巡る闘い:

  • 急速充電器 (EV Quick Charger)
  • Nissan's ZESP2 (Zero Emission Support Proguram-2): ¥2K/mo card
Name Max Output AC/DC Location  
Chademo 50kW
(500V 125A)
DC Japan, EU, US 6,300
10,000+ (Wor)
(400V 32A)
400V 63A)

Renault Zoe

(500V 140A)
DC   same pin w AC
Super-charger 120kW
(400V 300A)
(360V 333A)
DC US, EU, Asia 3,519
for Tesla
(1000V 200A)
DC US, Aust. 222
(1000V 200A)
DC EU 1,910
  • Change of top sales of car in US (2018):
# Name of car Sales amount Sales unit
1 Tesla Model-3 $992.5M 17,800
2 Toyota Carmry $765.4M 30,141
3 Honda Accord $678.7M 26,725
4 Honda Civic $567.2M 27,677
5 Toyota Corolla $536.0M 26,155
  • 旭化成: 吉野彰、Li Battery 発明者; 1981よりR&D
    • 研究ステージ: 1) 基礎研究 2) 量産開発 3) 市場開拓
      • 市場: 当初Sony 8mm video battery; 1M/mo
      • PC (Windows95); 500 times
      • EV: 5,000 times
        • EV share 15% in 2025
        • Battery capacity: 500 GWh (=500 Nuclear plants)
  • >Top Sales of Sedan in CA, USA, 2018:


  • >Top EV Sales forecast:


  • >Top Backcast Forecast of EV:


>Top 3. Comparison of EV and PHV (Plag-in Hybrid Vehcle):

  Battery capacity Cruising length Car price Max power & torque Remarks
Nissan Leaf G
(e type)
40kWh 322km (WLTC); 400km (JC08) ¥4,100k
110kW (150ps);
1,520kg for 5p
Nissan Leaf G
(e+ type)
62kWh 458km (WLTC), 570km (JC08) ¥4,800k
160kW (218ps);
1,670kg for 5p
75-100kWh 383-523km (EPA) ¥11,100-13,500k




55-75kWh 386-499km (EPA) ¥5,110-7,032k 211-258kW
1,611-1,730kg fro 5p
Mitsubishi iMiEV
16kWh 66km (EPA), 164 (JC08) ¥2,948k 47kW (64ps)
1,100kg for 4p
Toyota Prius
40km (WLTC); 68km (JC08)
37km/L; with Solar 180W(2.3-6.1km)
¥4,117k E: 72kW(98ps)+M: 53kW(72ps)
E: 142Nm+M: 163Nm
1,750kg for 4p
Honda Calarity PHV (IMA) 17kWh

101km (WLTC); 114km (JC08)

¥5,881k E: 77kW(105ps)+M: 135kW(184pps)
E: 134Nm +M: 315Nm
1850kg for 5p
Nissan Fuga
18km/L (JC08) ¥5,775k E: 268kW(306ps) +M: 50kW(68ps)
E: 350Nm +M: 290Nm

Dual clutch

Toyota Crown
3.5L 15km/L ¥5,400k E: 296ps +M: 147kW(200ps) 487☓180☓147
Mercedes Benz
S-class HV
3.5L 11km/L ¥12,700k E: 279ps +M: 20ps 510☓187☓149
BMW i3
w. range extender


127km (WLTC)
295km for r.ext
¥5,430k 125kW (170ps)
250 Nm

1,440kg for 4pn(r.ext)
Fuel tank 9L

VW e-Golf 35.8kWh 301km (JC08) ¥4,990k 100kW (136ps)
290 Nm
1,590kg for 5p


8,7kWh 32km      
  • kW (Power) and kWh (Energy):
    • Nissan Leaf:
      • Battery capacity: 40kWh (published 2017/10) and (e+ 62kWh, in 2018/1);
        Prius PHV 8.8kWh
      • Moter power: 110kW
      • Chademo: 50kW; 40kWh/50kW=48min
    • Tesla 60D (Model-X):
      • Battery capacity: 60kWh (Base 75kWh/100kWh)
      • Motor power: 386kW (568kW)
      • Tesla Wall Connecter: 6kW: 60kW/6kW=10h
      • Supercharger: 130kW
  • Cruising distance:
    • NEDC (EU)
    • JC08 (Japan): Leaf 400km (=240km EPA)
    • EPA (US): most practical indicator

>Top <Sales of cars in 2018>

# Auto maker Sales Remarks
1 VW 10.83M +1.0% (year-to-year)
2 Nissan+Renaut+Mitsubishi 10.78M +2.0% (N:5.65M+R: 3.88M+M1.21M)
3 Toyota 10.59M +2.0%
4 GM 8.38M ▲13%
5 Hyundai 7.40M +2.0%
6 Ford 5.98M ▲10%
7 Honda 5.24M ▲1.0%
8 FCA 4.84M +2.0%
9 PSA 3.88M +7.0%
10 Daimler 3.35M +2.0%
  • >Top Only seven years to shift to next generation technology:
    • The trend of technological shift is indispensable:
    • Prof. H. Shimizu of Keio Unit. who has developed EV from the beginning points out that it usually takes 7 years needed to shift to the next generation technologies:
      • from music record to CD, or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) TV to LCD TV, or fixed telephone to mobile cellular phone.
      • the shifting time from combustion engine to EV would be the same 7 years.
        • Kurt Kelty, former director of battery technology says that:
        • the sales of EV will outnumber gasoline engine cars by 2025, though investment banks forecast EV will share 10-15% by 2025.
        • In Palo alto CA, already 22% of sales of new cars are EV.
  • The innovator's dilemma situation of Japanese car makers (2017):
    • Toyota who selss 10M cars worldwide forecasts by 2030 no-engine cars (BEV+FCV) will be 1M, Hybrid cars 4.5M, and gasoline engine cars 4.5M
    • Working force related auto-indutries 5.34M people (8.3% of all working population).
      • car assembly maker: 188K, sales ¥53.3T
      • parts of cars 626K, sales ¥17.2T (engine; electric equipment; body-frame; brake system; drive component);
      • raw materials 456K (electric machine 66K; steel 130K; metal product 41K; chemical-textile-oil 31K; plastics-rubber-glass 139K)
      • related industries 4,074K (transportation 1,714K; Travel 560K; Rent-a-car 49K; Gas station 336K; Car insurance 12K; Resale car shop 577K; Car repair 264K)
    • Sales of EV is not limited in the share of auto-industry; share of sustainable energy also affects:
      • Germany, already supplys sustainable energy about 40% of all power generation, and aims 80% by 2050; while Japanes sustatinable energy shares only 6%.
  • EV+PHV Worldwide Sales:


  • Technology Shift:



>Top 4. Battery for EV:

  • Akira Yoshio (吉野彰) of Asahi Kasei is the inventor of rechargeable (secondary) lithium-ion battery (LIB), (different from lithium battery, using MnO2 anode - Li cathode.
    • forcasts that the share of EV would be 15% in 2025, supplying 500GWh of Li-ion battery.
    • LIB:
      • Li ions move form negative electrode to positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
      • common rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with high energy density, tiny memory effect and low self-discharge.
      • Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is uses as anode, carbon fiber added polyacetylene as cathode.
    • Production:
      • Three steps of the real product: R&D, mass production, and mass sales.
      • Dr. Hideki Shirakawa (白川英樹) was awarded Nobel Prized by the discovery of conductive polyactylene in 2000.
    • since Sony's video camera, and PC after Windsows95, the Li battery's market expanded 500 times.
    • EV would require 5000 times of consumption.
    • Intercalation (<insert period in a calendar):
  • FCAS (Frequency Control Ancillary Service):
    • Hornsdale Power Reserve (HPR): 100MW Battery supplied by Tesla; cutting 90% of the electricity charge of SA, Australia; invested A$90M.
    • 100MW Power Reserve shares only 2% of electricity of SA, earning 55% of the profit of electricity.
  • Battery makers: Litium-ion Battery (LIB)
    • Japan: Sony, Sanyo, Hitachi, Japan Storage Battery (日本電池)
    • Korea:
      • LG Chem, Samsung SDI, SK Innovation; LIB factory in Poland and Hungary
      • 2000 Samsung SDI started mass production of LIB, 9 years after Sony; and exceeded Sanyo by 2010.
    • China:
      • CATL (宁德时代); LIB factory in Thüringen, Germany; will be the world biggest battery maker (>Fig.)
        • CATL produces battern 50GWh, exceeding the production capacity of LG and BYD in 2020.
      • BYD (迪)
      • Optimum Nano Energy
    • US:
      • Tesla: Giga factory, scheduled to produce 500K EV by 2020.
  • >Top History of battery development:
    • 1997: Toyota published Prius; and in 1999 Honda published 'Insight".
    • Sanyo, as the pioneer of LIB maker, produced BMS (Battery Management System) for Ford and VW; then installed in i-MiEV in 2009, and in Leaf in 2010.
    • 1991 Sony invented LIB for civil use; but in 1998 declined the production of LIB.
    • Other Japanese makers such as Sanyo, Hitachi, Japan Storage Battery.
    • Competition of LIB in the area of material of anode, cathode, separator, electrolytes.
  • Cost reduction of battery:
    • now ¥25,000/kWh, approaching ¥10,000/kWh.
    • Cost leader is LG Chem; CATL is competing in the market.
    • Shift of technology has occurred not only LIB, but also Liquid Crystal, Flat-screen TV, Mobile phone, Smart phone, Semiconductor, and Solar panel.
  • Subsidy of Battery:
    • 2018, Chinese government ended subsidy to EV with less than cruising distance 300km.
  • >Top Weather condition and EV battery range (AAA report):
    • AAA (The American Automobile Association) tested 5 major EVs (BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model-S 75D, and VW eGolf) and concluded that cold weather effects on the driving range: -6.7ºC (20F) cuts the range 41% when a heater was uses. The biggest reduction was 50% by BMWi3, the smallest was on Nissan Leaf 31%.
    • Conventional gasoline engine car's mileage is about 12% lower at 20F, while hybrids are 31-34% less.
    • The key to the reduction is the use of a heater; Chevy Bolt, Tesla Model-S, and VW eGolf use resistive heaters, while Nissan Leaf and BMW i3s employ heat pumps.
    • VW eGolf's manual says, "Should the vehicle be parked for longer than two days below -25ºC, the thigh-voltage battery could freeze and not be able to provide energy to the electric motor."

4. EV用バッテリー:


1H 2018 Battery Production (2016-17)
  Battery Provider Mwh
1 Panasonic/Tesla 14,890
2 BYD 7,360
3 LG Chem


4 CATL 4,610
5 Samsung SDI 3,510
6 AESC 2,640
  • Temperature and driving range:


  • >Top Average consumption of Japanese home per month:
    • 300kWh/mo=10kWh/d
    • 40kW leaf battery can supply about the consumption of 2.4 days. (V2H)
  • CATL annual production:

>Top 5. Powretrain of EV:

  • About 100 motors are used in a car, for wiper, etc.
  • Mechanism of EV:
    • 1) Li-ion Battery (nearly 7000 cells); 2) Inverter (DC to AC); 3) Induction Motor (AC 3-phase electric motor; roduing torque by electromagnetic inductin; variable-frequency drives (VFD) in variable-speed service.); 4) Gear Box connected to Driving Wheel (single speed transmission; smooth cutoff power) ; Indution Motor functions as a generator in case of regenerative braking.
  • In-wheel (Wheel or Hub) motor:
    • motor incorporated into the hub of a wheel without gearing and addressed torque consideratins through the use of a new high torque.
  • Volume of software:
    • 10M lines of code in a car, increased 5-10 times in 15 years in around 1981.
    • 8M lines in airplane-787.
  • Powertrain of BEV/e-Power/PV:
  • enginemotortorque

5. EVの伝動機構:

  • Induction Motor: 誘導電動機
  Elec. Motor Gasoline Engine
Size small large
Weight light 32kg heavy 180kg
Power 270 kW 140 kW
Power/Wt 8.5 kW/kg 0.8 kW/kg
Ene.density 250 Wh/kg 12000 Wh/kg
Transmission No Yes
Recha. brake Yes No
Crusing dist. Consum. rate


Dayz Roox
14.48km/kWh 30L 434km
Lexus GS F
7.58km/L 66L 500km
Mazda CX3 12.79km/L 48L 614km
Leaf 2016
5.71km/kWh 30kWh 171km
Leaf 2018
(6km/L☓35L =210km)


40kWh 243km
Leaf 2019
5.87km/kWh 62kWh 364km
Tesla Model-S, 75D 5.53km/kWh 75kWh 414km
Tesla Model-S, 90D 5.23km/kWh 90kWh 470km
Tesla Model-S, 100D 5.36km/kWh 100kWh 536km
Toyota Prius PHV   4.4kWh 26km
Toyota Prius NewPHV 2017   8.8kWh 68km


>Top 6. Energy Efficiency:

  • 2017/8 Transport & Environment reported comparison of BEV, FCV and Conventional vehicle;
  • The conclusion is BEV is al least three times more efficient than FCV due to energy losses.
    Direct charging
Power to Liquid
(Conventional car)
Well to tank 100% renewable electricity 100% renewable electricity 100% renewable electricity
  Electrolysis 30% loss 30% loss
  $CO_2$ air-capture,
37% loss
  Transport, storage & distribution 5% loss 26% loss
Fuel production efficiency 95% 52% 44%
Tank to wheel      
  Inversion AD/DC 5% loss
  Battery charge efficiency 5% loss
  $H_2$ to electricity conversion 50% loss
  Inversion DC/AC 5% loss 5% loss
  Engine efficiency 10% loss 10% loss 70% loss
Overall efficiency 73% 22% 13%

6. エネルギー効率:

  • FT synthesis: Fischer-Tropsch process converts $CO$ and $H_2$ into liquid hydrocarbons.


>Top 7. <Cf.> FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle):

  • Difficulties of FCV:
  • Fuel
    • Energy efficiency: FCV 36% vs. CNGV 29%
    • Price: FCV is 2 times of CNGV
  • Primary resource:
    • Natural gas; there is no resource of simple substance of H2
    • Well-to-Wheel $CO_2$ emission: 1) EV, 2) FCV, 3) PHV, 4) Gasoline
    • Emission of $NO_x$ is a serous problem of FCV; because of quicker flaming speed of $H_2$ than gasoline.
    • Risk of flaming, or even explosion; odorant of H2 might be needed to detect leaking.
  • Fuel Station: construction cost is ¥400 -600M/station
    • Toyota, Honda, Nissan subside ¥4 -6B.
    • Delivery of $H_2$ supply: by specialized tank truck (Off-site supply), or produce of $H_2$ by electrolysis, etc at the station (On-site supply)
    • Recovery quickness of supply route: from electricity, water, gasoline, then city gas.
  • Hydrogen container tank of FCV:
    • CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tank to include pressurized $H_2$ (70MPa, 7M atm); 5 times more pressurized tank of normal $H_2$ tank.
    • Supplying tank chilled -40ºC;
    • Supplying capacity 340 $Nm^3/h$, which needs 10 min. for fueling FCV;
  • Response of engine:
    • Quick response of output power could not be expected.
    • Regenerative energy: stored in the battery.
  • Complexity of FCV:
    • Number of parts of power train: Gasoline 10-30K; EV 80-100; FCV is almost same with gasoline engine.
  • Nissan declined development of FCV:
    • Nissan had agreed to develop FCV with German Daimler and US Ford.
  • FCV Comparison:

7. <比較> 水素燃料電池自動車:

  Toyota MIRAI Honda Clarify
Full Cell
Motor power   130kW; AC
Torque 335Nm 300Nm
Output power 113kW 103kW
Fuel tank 122L 141L; 70MPa
Dimension 489☓182☓154 491☓188☓148
Weight 1,850kg 1,890kg
Cruising distance 650km (JC08) 750km (JC08)
Passenger 4 5
Price ¥7.2M ¥7.6M
  • Development of EV causes a drastic revolution of car industry and its surrounding ecosystem (oil storage depot, tank truck, gas station, car repair shop, etc.); ie., it is the battle between fossile energy vs. electricity.
  • Various key technologies related development of EV, such as lithium-ion battery, Hybrid car, original EV, specification of electric charger, etc.) had developed in Japan; too much optimization of development gas-efficient engine might rather delay the drastic shift to EV motorization.
  • EVの開発は自動車産産業およびそれを取り巻くエコシステム(石油貯蔵デポ、タンクローリー、ガソリンスタンド、自動車修理店等)の劇的な革命の原因となる。即ち化石燃料対デンキの闘いである。
  • EV開発関連の中核技術(Liイオン電池、ハイブリッド車、オリジナルEV、充電器仕様等)は日本で開発されてきた。低燃費のガソリンエンジンへの過剰適応したことが、むしろEV駆動への劇的な転換に遅れる原因となり得る。

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