>Top 2. Separating chasm between interpretation and translation:
- Confusing vowels:
- English language has 14-16 vowels; in IPA pronunciation symbols there are different.
- In vowels: iː (eat), e (bed), æ (cat), ɪ (bit), ə (about), əː/ɜː(curb), ʌ (up), ʊ (full), uː (do), ɑː (last), ɔː (saw), ɒ (bot),
- In diphthong: eɪ (say), aɪ (eye), ɔi (toy), aʊ (out), əʊ (over), ɪə (peer), eə (pear), ʊə (pure)
- For an interpreter, listening position as well as listening ability is particularly important.
- Listening ability consists of ability of differentiate meaning of the term, context of the conversation, situation of the communication, understandability of the receiver as well as general background knowledge of the conversation.
- Memory is always important in interpretation and translation; particularly in case of consecutive interpretation, good memory is required.
- A note or a memo taken during the interpretation is very important, which helps insufficiency of memory during interpretation.
- Concentrating listening and Taking note are inconsistent; taking unique or skillful note is important to become a reliable interpreter.
- But taking a note is supplementary; memory is more important to make a good interpretation.
- >Top Active or passive knowledge:
- It is a passive knowledge to understand what a person speaks or writes; but is an active knowledge to speak or write by oneself.
- An interpreter is required to reciprocate passive and active vocabularies in both languages.
- Selective or multiple-choice test is a typical passive knowledge, while writing a thesis or a report, or making presentation is an active one.
- Speed of an speaker is essential; it said that interpretation will be appropriate when the original speech is made around 100-120 words in a minute in the case of interpretation between English and French.
- If the speaking speed became 150-200 words, it would be difficult to keep the quality of interpretation.
- Redundancy of spoken language:
- It is usually said that spoken language contains 60-70% redundant or repetitious words; or in some cases 90-100% redundancy.
- A skillful interpreter can use this redundancy for better interpretation.
- On the contrary written language contains little redundancy.
- At International conferences such as UN, some speakers read the prepared draft very rapidly; in such cases interpreters may reject the interpretation, stating that "This speaker reads too fast the prepared draft, which was not handed beforehand to us. In such conditions of interpretation, we could not fullfil satisfactory interpretation for the audience. Therefore we are obliged to reject our interpretation and quit from this place rather than giving wrong interpretation for you."
- >Top Mystery of memory:
- There are three categories of memory: 1) short-term memory (from 1 minute to 1 hour) during the interpretation, 2) middle-range memory (from half day to one week) needed for the job of interpretation during particular conference or training, 3) long-term memory (almost semi-permanent) as basic knowledge used for the profession.
- Ability of memory surely deteriorates according to aging; but we still remain alternative ability or seven reinforcement of memory as follows: 1) meaningful or significative words (including mnemonic), 2) interesting words or sentences, 3) understandable or known words, 4) logical sentences, 5) speech with story (including funny stories, or rhapsodies, 6) rhythmical phrases, such as poem or haiku, 7) description easy to be visualize as a picture.
- >Top Lecture of Nancy Martin (interpreted by Kumiko Tamaru):
- Information by listening is only 10%, while that by looking is 30%. But the information by own experience attains 80%. So it is important to try it by yourself than listening a lecture or reading a book.
- An interpreter really learns knowledge of the theme during the interpretation activity; therefore it will be recognized by most of the interpreters that if the interpretation had started from following day after finishing the job, which could have been done in much more smarter way than today.
- >Top An interpreter should be involved in translation job at least 20%:
- Interpretation is always pressed by instant interpretation, though it is allowed not to be perfect.
- On the contrary, translation needs to be perfect in selecting most appropriate translated words or expression by having enough time of checking translated words or expressions.
- The job of interpretation terminates in a short time, or even shameful mistakes of interpretation is discarded.
- On the contrary, the quality of translation remains for longer times as a record.
- However, even an interpreter should accept translation jobs as much as at least around 20%.
- It would be useful for an interpreter through translation jobs to find the most appropriate expression spending enough time including consulting dictionaries or related books.
- Translation activity will contribute an interpreter to enhance own ability and sense of wording.
- >Top Plagiarism or copying the interpretation is almost impossible:
- Interpretation is essentially one time job, which would not be reused, just like a theatrical arts or music performance.
- Translation activity is always available copying; an established translator may subcontract the job to the junior staff.
- But there might be an exception: during broadcasting of the Gulf War, some TV channel could not prepare the interpreter for the urgent news. The foreign news section considered to plagiarize or copy the interpretation of other TV program (like NHK).
- But this idea of copying interpretation of other channel was not adopted fortunately.
- Actually, it could be intolerable to copy the same expression of an announcer of other channel.
- 翻訳: 媒体が文字
- 通訳: 媒体が音声
- 組織･葬式; 情勢･女性; 空想･糞; 顧問･肛門; 少女･処女; 出国･出獄; 研究･緊急;
- earth(ass); bad manner(bed)
- економическое положение (поражение?) Японии
- послаь(посрать) 発送･糞
- 物語性のあるもの: 小咄
意味, image, storyを
- 田丸久美子: 聴覚情報10%, 視覚情報30%, 体験情報80%も定着する。