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Disfavoring society of science

- Sinking science & technology in Japan -

Cat: SCI
Pub: 2010

Yukihide Hayashi (林幸秀)


Disfavoring society of science


  1. Introduction:
  2. Sinking Japan:
  3. Disfavoring science-oriented personnel:
  4. Use of scientific personnel:
  5. Losing initiative in global standard:
  6. Delayed in clinical applications:
  7. Every country competes in science & technology:
  8. Status-quo of Japanese science & technology:
  9. Challenge and contribution through science & technology:
  1. 序文:
  2. 地盤沈下する日本:
  3. 理科系人材の冷遇:
  4. 活かせない理科系人材:
  5. イニシアティブが取れない国際標準 :
  6. 遅れが目立つ臨床応用:
  7. 各国とも科学技術を最重点に:
  8. 日本の科学技術の現状:
  9. 科学技術で世界に挑戦・貢献を:
; ; Apprentice system; Big project; Catch up policy; CE; Central Research Institute; Come as you are; Drug lag; Enrollment; Foreign researcher; Generic; Global standard; Knowledge-based economy; Modularization; National University Corporation Act; Nobel laureates; Outsourced R&D; Pharmaceutical Affairs Law; Post-doctral; Program Officer; RCR; Research fund; SCI; Tenure; Tuition fee; WHOI; ;

>Top 0. Introduction:

  • Japan is a country where science oriented researchers having Ph.D are neither regarded as respectable people nor occupying higher positions in the society.
  • This is a severe warning statement from one of the top leaders who has lead policies of science and technology in Japan as a key bureaucrat for long time.
  • In 2008, Japan was filled with joy of the news that Japanese three scholars were solely awarded Nobel Prize in physics. The total Nobel laureates is counted 23, including 10 physics, 7 chemicals, and 3 medicals. (as of 2017)
  • Recent remarkable technological success of Japan is:
    • H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV named stork); unmanned resupply spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS).
    • Hayabusa (MUSES-C), which successfully brought sand sample from Itokawa, an asteroid in June 2010.

0. 序文:

  • 日本のポスドク問題
  • 基礎科学分野の遅れ
    • ノーベル賞受賞者
  • 先端技術輸出の鈍化
  • 理系人材の先細り

>Top 1. Sinking Japan:

  • Capacity of Supercomputer: Top-7 (Nov.2016) (<TOP500)
    1. Sunway TaihuLight; Cn
    2. Tianhe-2; Cn
    3. Titan -Cray XK7; US
    4. Sequoia- IBM; US
    5. Cori -Crat XC40; US
    6. Oakforest-PACS -Fujitsu; Jp
    7. K coputer -Fujitsu; Jp
  • Share of Treatise: Number of research papers:
    • US 27.9%; Cn 10.5%; UK 7.7%; De 7.5%; Jp 7.0%; Fr 5.4% (2010 Science & Technology white paper, 2010)
  • >Top Science Citation Index (SCI): quality of treatise:
    • US 1.51; UK 1.42; De 1.37; Fr 1.25; Jp 1.02; Kr 0.77; Cn 0.68 (Thomson Reuters, 2009)
  • Share of Export of High-tech products:
    • Cn 18.0%; US 14.3%; De 10.1%; Jp 6.4%; Fr 5.2%; Kr 5.0%; UK 4.3%
      • Here, the high-tech products mean: aerospace, electronics, business machine, computer, pharmaceuticals, medical & precision machine
    • Reason:
      • Modularization: assembled by general-purpose parts.
      • Horizontal international division: separation of design and manufacturing
        • Eg.: Semiconductor industry; raw materials and manufacturing equipment in emerging countries/
        • Eg.: DVD player; Liquid crystal panel; Solar panel; Car navigation, which are mostly developed in Japan.
        • iPod: surpassed in 2001 Walkman developed by SONY.
        • iPod cost component: production cost $144
          • 50% HDD (Jp); 16% LC display (Jp); 16% Jp, 6% Processor (US); 3% Controller (US); 2% Battery (Jp); 23% Others
        • iPad cost component: production cost $260
          • 36% LC display (mostly Kr); 14% Flash memory (Jp/Kr); 9% Battery (Kr/Cn/Tw); 7% Processor (US); 34% Others.
      • Strength of technology management
  • Export of Machine Tool:
    • Japan has shared No.1 since 1982; but since 2009 Japan's export became third after China and Germany. Where has gone Manufacturing-Japan?:
    • Export amount of Machine Tool (2009):
      Cn $11B, De $7.8B, Jp $5.9B

1. 地盤沈下する日本:

  • treatise: 研究論文
  • modularization: モジュラー化
  • general-purpose parts: 汎用部品
  • horizontal international division: 国際水平分業
  • machine tool: 工作機械
  • Number & capacity of Supercomputers worldwide:
  • Top 500 # of supercomputer
    US 282
    UK 38
    Fr 27
    Cn 24
    De 24
    Jp 18

  • 研究論文総数
  • 研究論文被引用度
    • 相対被引用度:
      US 1.51; De 1.37; Jp 1.02
  • ものつくり日本は、世界3位に後退?
  • ハイテク製品輸出 (2008):
    Cn 18%; US 14%; De10%; Jp 6%
  • モジュール化した製品シェア低下
  • iPodからiPadへの変遷過程で日本の部品供給力急激に低下
    • iPad: LC display: Samsun main, partly Seiko-Epson
    • Flash memory: Samson and Toshiba
    • Battery: Samsun SDI, 天津力神电池 (Cn), 新普普科技 (Tw)

>Top 2. Disfavoring science-oriented personnel:

  • Number of scientific researchers: (>Fig.)
    • Japan is nearly half in number of scientific researchers compared with EU, US, and Cn.
    • In addition, frequency of interchange of researchers is less in Japan, such as number of research fora or workshops.
  • Disinteresting trend in studying science in Japanese education, since 1987.:
    • Decreasing number of application for scientific course in university:
    • Deteriorating ability of mathematics.
    • Trend of science favoring pupils:
      • 1st grade of elementary school: 90%
      • 6th grade of elementary school: 60%
      • 3rd grade of junior high school: 40%
    • Problem may be teachers: Teaching ability of science:
      • Teachers in elementary school: 27% good 62% bad
    • Awareness of science; asking pupils whether science is useful or not:
      • Elementary & Junior high school:
        showing more negative response that science, math are useful in life, compared with Japanese language, foreign language and social studies.
      • Senior high school:
        80% useful of language & social studies, but only 40% for math, physics, chemistry, and geology.
  • >Top Enrollment capacity at University:
    • Japan has been retained relatively larger number of enrollment in faculties of science and technology since Meiji era.; National universities and major private universities like Waseda and Keio.
    • But now students are decreasing in number aiming these faculties
    • Segmentation began earlier in high schools preparing entrance examination: examination subjects differ between the course for social science and natural science.
      • Quality and number of math and science differ between them:
      • Math (including calculus), physics, and chemistry are compulsory subjects in natural science course.
    • Decreasing of applicants to science & technology:
      • To faculty of technology: 900K in 1990 to 533 in 2008
      • To faculty of science: mostly constant around 96K
      • The ration of science & technology was around 20%, but now 15%, and approaching around 10%.
  • Busy students of science & technology:
    • Studying time per day: natural science 319 min. (5.3h) vs. social science 219 min. (3.7h).
  • >Top Tuition fee:
    • National Universities are same tuition fee between natural science and social science.
    • But average fee in private universities: natural science ¥5.14M vs. social science ¥3.87M (Difference ¥1.27M)
      • In addition, students majored in natural science tend to promote additional 2 year master course. (plus ¥1.35M in national univ. vs. ¥2.28 in private univ.)
      • furthermore, cost of living (accommodation, etc.) is added for 2 additional years studying.
  • Employment market:
    • Graduates of science & technology faculties; who thought knowledge of mathematics or other science could be useful to find jobs, but actually those are not favorable conditions.
    • Employment opportunities for them is not so large compared with graduate who chose social science.
      • Lifetime salary is that graduate of natural science is about ¥50M less.
      • probably because of difference of industry; manufacturers vs. financial institutions, and also of speed of promotion.
      • The ratio of graduates of natural science; Diet members 19%; presidents of listed companies 28%; ministers of Koizumi cabinet 11%; 3% of vice-minister of ministries.
        • top of corporations: 55% in Fr, 54% of UK/De
        • In China, most of top leaders are graduate of natural science, who have promoted the top position after gaining practical experiences at each local area.
    • >Top Post-doctoral problem:
      • Postdoctoral researchers who are not employed as lifetime positions.
      • Number of postdoctoral in Japan:
        6,201/1991 →16,450/2009 →17,945/2010
        • working: 12,672 at univ; and at public organizations: 5,273
        • Ages: 30-34 (42%); less 29 (24.5%); 35-39 (19.3%)
        • Women researchers: over 40 (31.9%)
    • >Top tenure: guaranteed permanent employment
      • In Japanese corporations; employed graduates are mostly tenured.
      • But postdoctorals are not tenured. (a kind or reverse discrimination)
      • The position of university educators is narrow strait:
        • Supply: around 6,000 plus postdoctoral 11,000 = 17,000;
        • while the demand: annual adopters: around 2,000 (only 12%)
        • only 11% of private companies annually adopt postdoctorals. (2007)
    • Principal Investigator (PI): head of laboratory or research group, or usually the first author of the thesis.
      • Established major professors are mostly PI's; younger researchers could not be PI's. (apprentice system)
    • Aging professors:
      • Professors 68,000 (39.7%) in all educators 172,000.
      • But 25,000 professors (37.2%) out of 68,000 are more than 60 years old.
    • Gender gap in scientific researchers:
      • 'The Global Gender Gap Report 2009': Japan is 77th in 134 countries.
      • salary disparity is 88th, and position of politician, higher bureaucrat, and top managers of companies are particularly bad 109th.
      • No gender gap in capability of science in elementary & junior high school.; but the gap widens from senior high school, probably due to social reasons, such as considering future possibility of employment.
        • gender gap in # of graduates:
          Italy 45.1%, US/UK/De/Fr more than 30%, but Japan less than 20% (=19.7%)
    • Pressure of childcare and family care:
      • Women researchers particularly require: 1) difficulty of housework and childcare 66.2%; 2) difficult return from childbirth 46.2%; 3) no considering childcare & family care 36.2%
  • >Top Fewer foreign researchers in Japan:
    • 21C is the century of knowledge; each advanced country scrambles to get able researchers and engineers. Particularly, US, EU, or Singapore are these countries. Even China and India having large population recalled able international students who studied in US or EU.
    • Japan with decreasing population should be more active to invite foreign researchers, preparing more favorable environment for them.
      • Foreign students studying in Japan numbers around 120K, while US is 580K, and UK is 380K.
      • Foreign postdoctorals shares in Jp about 10%, while US or UK more than 40%; probably caused by communication language.
      • Foreign educators in Jp numbers about 59K in universities 2008 (3.5% of total), and 0.9K in institutions (5.8%).
      • IPMU is exceptional: foreign researchers shares more than 2/3 in 1000.
        • Murayama, Director of IPMU comments about the difficulty of inviting foreign researchers, because of 1) global leveled pay, 2) half subsidy for international school for foreign researchers' children, 3) mediation of accommodation, 4) mediation of employment of espouse, 5) support of getting credit card, and 6) tenure issue is serious, which is not approved at IPMU.

2. 理科系人材の冷遇:

  • Manufactiring Japan: Monozukuri Nippon
  • disinterest in science: 理科離れ
  • tenure: 終身在職
  • strait gate: 狭き門
    strait is the gate and narrow is the way which leadeth unto life.
  • as premises for: を前提として
  • Number of Scientific Researchers (2007): full-time equivalent.
    研究者数 (専従換算)
  • EU 1.45M
    US 1.43M
    Cn 1.42M
    Jp 0.71M
  • 理工学部への志願者数低下傾向
    • 中国のトップはほぼ理系
    • 日: 定職に就けないポスドク
      Tenure truck導入の試み
  • Ratio of women researchers:
  • US 34.3%
    It 33.3%
    Fr 27.7%
    UK 26.0%
    De 21.4%
    Jp 13.0%
  • Women Educators in universities:
  • UC Berkeley 35%
    Harvard 32%
    Yale 32%
    Oxford 23%
    Tokyo Univ. 9%
  • 中根千枝教授: 東大初の女性教授1970
  • 7大学総長による男女共同参画宣言 2008
  • Women educators in all universities in Japan (2008):
  •   Profesor 11.6%
      Asso. professor 18.9%
      Lecturer 27.1%
      Assistant 51.4%
    Total: 18.4%
  • Women educators are postioned in lower status; function as an assistant.



  • 少ない外国人研究者:


>Top 3. Use of scientific personnel:

  • Decreasing big projects:
    • Big projects which needs many scientific researchers and expensive facilities are decreasing in Japan, such as nuclear development, space development, ocean development.
      • FBR Monju: spent ¥600B
      • ITER (International thermonuclear Experimental Research): cost estimated ¥1.6T ($16B); with D-T fusion experiments starting 2035.
      • JAXA experiment module: H-IIA rocket ¥9B + satellite ¥20-50B.
      • JAXA budget is around ¥180B (2010); can launch rocket 1-2 times a year, while US 2 times/mo, EU 1/2mos.; CASC+CASIC (both Cn) almost 1/mo.
      • NASA has 10 times budget and ESA has 2 times budget of JAXA.
      • Shirase-II: cost ¥40B
    • >Top Research funds:
      • Japan: Competitive research fund ¥463B ($4.6B); Scientific research fund; ¥200B ($2B) by MOE; including overhead (18%)
      • US: NIH $25B; MOD $4.4B; NSF $3.6B; NASA $3.6B
    • Large joint-use facility:
      • Spring-8 (Super Photon Ring-8 GeV): Synchrotron radiation facility in Hyogo prefecture, owned by RIKEN, costed ¥110B.
      • Super Kamiokande (Neutrino Detection Experiment); located 1000m underground of Kamioka area, installed 11,146 photomultiplier tube (PMT); costed ¥10.4B.
      • B-factory; collider experiment to detect B meson; costed ¥37.8B
      • Subaru Telescope at the top of Mauna Kea, Hawaii of NAOJ (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan); costed ¥39.7B.
  • Budget for University:
    • Special account for national universities:
      • about ¥3,000B; But abolished now.
    • Subsidies for operational expenses of national universities:
      • ¥1242B/2004→¥1158B/2010
        • for Tokyo University: ¥86B/2010
        • for Yamagata University: ¥12B/2010
      • Budget for Tokyo University only:
        • ¥206.7B (including hospital income and tuition fees):
          ¥85.7B from general account:
    • Subsidies for private universities: ¥331B/2006 →¥322B/2010
  • >Top Competitive budget (by public offering):
    • Jp: ¥463B (2010)
    • US: ¥4,500B ($40.4B about 10 times)
      • NIH $25B; DOD $4.4B; NSF $3.6B, NASA $3.6B
    • The number of Program officer (PO) (mostly doctrials) for distribution is not enough:
      • In US, 500 PO for NSF, and 1100 PO for NIH
      • In Japan, most of PO are concurrent post of university professors. The Review Committee is affected by major professors.
  • In 2004, Japanese national university reform in Japan; National University Corporation Act.
    • Independent budget of each national university.
    • Professors became busier in management; causing decrease of research time (from 45% to 34%)
    • Increase of social responsibility: decision making, increase of evaluation, application for external budget, privacy protection, open additivities for citizens.
    • Increase of intermittent times: continuous time for research is about 2 hours.
    • Inappropriate equality: between able professors and not able ones.
  • Main interest of professors:
    • to promote own research in their specialized area, to bring up able successors.
    • particularly to write theses, obtain intellectual properties, and make presentations at academic conferences.
    • on the other hand, private corporations require graduates who have immediately useful knowledge in business.
  • Globalization of universities:
    • Lecture and communications in English is mostly limited; i.e., most of the knowledge can be learned in Japanese only owing to the enormous translated works since the Meiji Restoration.
    • Particularly, in science and technology area, English functions as the common language.
    • One of the serious problems is poor communication ability of university staff; calls from foreign countries could not be smoothly conveyed as well as various documents and application are required to fill in in Japanese.
  • >Top Poor and halfway evaluation of subsidized projects:
    • As the budget is almost zero growth, each evaluation for the subsidized project tends to be a demerit system or halfway evaluation; causing much ado about nothing after the evaluation meetings, probably because of having no fund for bonus evaluation.
      • Insufficient intermediate evaluation; which is mostly done by 'come as you are' style, avoiding decisive conclusion such as discontinuation of the project.;
      • Even after the final evaluation, the lessons of the project are not seriously affected; because there is no bonus or penalty mechanism; similar level of applications are repeated from zero and applied to other funds of other governmental organizations.
  • >Top Less liquidity of human resources:
    • as well as rigidity of budget.
    • lifetime employment system functioned well in high growth age, but which become inefficient in zero growth society; corporate organizations are obliged to continue employment in such unstable environment, because it is difficult to adjust employment drastically.
    • it become too risky to chase another speciality, or change organization, or establish a new venture; most of the employees tend to cling to the present organization to the retirement age.
      • Retirement allowance system is made as premises for lifetime employment.
    • Liquidity of specialists contributes dissemination of special knowledge to various areas; such as NASA project, etc.
  • >Top Depending on foreign specialists:
    • Central Research Institute:
      • Japanese private corporations had been eager to develope R&D establishing their Central Research Institute.; like Toyota; Honda; Panasonic.
      • But after collapse of bubble economy, the institute is required to pursue practical research rather than basic research.
    • Outsourced R&D:
      Also, Japanese corporations invest external universities or institute to get the particular R&D.
      • Amount of external R&D; ¥1.1T/1998 (10.6% of total R&D)→¥2.1T/2007 (15.5%)
      • Outsourced overseas R&D: ¥156B/2002 (10.0% of outsourced R&D)→¥307B/2007 (14.2%, which is 1.5 times of Tokyo Univ. budget.)

3. 活かせない理解系人材:

  • research fund: 科研費
  • immeadiate useful knowledge:即戦力
  • much ado about nothing: 大山鳴動...
  • come as you are: 身内だけの
  • lifetime employment: 終身雇用
  • ビッグプロジェクト:
    • 巨大プロジェクトの減少
      • 原子力
      • 宇宙
      • 観測
    • 研究資金
    • 大型共同利用設備
      • Springu-8
      • スーパーカミオカンデ
      • B-factory
      • すばる望遠鏡
  • 大学予算の限界:
    • 国立大学特別会計の廃止
    • 東大の予算規模 ¥207B
  • 貧弱な競争的資金:
    • 米国の1/10しかない
    • POの数
  • 科学研究費補助 (科研費)鈍化
    • 予算 ¥200B (2010)
    • 2005以降科学技術予算ゼロ成長
    • 間接経費も不足 (30%→18%)
    • 配分審査に専任ない
    • 有力教授支配・地域偏重
  • 2004 国立大学法人化
    • 進まない大学改革
    • 各大学の独立予算
    • 社会的責任の増大
    • 研究時間の断片化
    • 多忙すぎる研究者
    • 人材流動性の不足
  • 教授たちの主要関心事
    • 研究後継者育成
    • 論文、知的財産、学会発表
    • 企業側も即戦力人材要望

  • 大学の国際化
    • ほど遠い国際化


  • 中途半ばなプロジェクト評価
    • 仲間内評価
    • 信賞必罰の欠如
    • 中間報告、最終報告の曖昧さ


  • 人材流動性欠如:



  • 民間会社
    • 企業の中央研究所離れ
    • 短期的な利益追求
    • 外国依存の強化
      10%→14% (¥307B/2007)





  • R&Dの外部リソース化:
    • 国内の大学・研究機関
    • 海外の大学・研究機関



>Top 4. Losing initiative in global standard:

  • Object of standardization:
    • Usability, compatibility, effectiveness in production, benefit for consumers, public interest and security, and preservation of environment.
    • Competition in market.
      • Eg.: Panasonic VHS vs. Sony's Betamax; Sony's blueray vs. Toshiba's HD DVD
    • Defacto standard vs. Dejure standard
  • International Standard Organization:
    • ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in Geneva:
      • ISO 9000: Quality Control
      • ISO 14000: Environmental management
    • ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in Geneva:
    • IEC (International Electotechnical Commission) in Geneva:
      • Cn: National Standardization Research Center retain 150 staff.
      • US: traditionally emphasizes defacto standard, but now began to participate dejure standard organization such as MS, Google, etc.
  • Most qualified products could not always become global standard:
    • High Vision TV:
      • Japanese NHK developed since 1974, and broadcast from 1985.
      • But Europe and US hesitated to adopt NHK's High Vision as the global standard, fearing the market domination by Japan; instead HDTV (digital definition) became global standard.
    • PC
      • IBMPC won the majority of PC market by promoting IBMPC compatibles. (open architecture)
      • But IBM itself could not be profitable; later sold to Chinese Lenovo.
      • This proved that one who controlled global standard can control the market, but could not necessarily gain the profit.
  • >Top Weak point of Japan:
    • adopted 'catch up policy' for a long time.
    • now competing technical development aiming front runner:
      • such as environment technology, fuel cell, EV
    • Global technical personnel; who can negotiate in English.
    • EU is the front runner in global standardization: CE (Communauté Européenne)
      • CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation)
  • Important issues on standardization:
    • LED lighting: market size ¥500B worldwide
      • Japanese makers lead this LED technology, but China, Korea, and ASEAN countries perform mass production of LED.
        • The problem is that there is no established evaluation method of LED products, whose less energy and longer life of products.
      • Nanotechnology: safety standard of application of nano technology in such as food, medicine, or cosmetics is not established yet.

4. イニシアティブが取れない国際標準:

  • CBHD, Cn Blue High Definition; Redray
  • 標準化の目的
    • 国際標準の重要性
    • 利便性・互換性・生産効率・消費者利益・公共性・安全性・環境保全

  • 国際標準:
    • defacto standard
    • dejure standard
  • 国際標準幹事国 (2008)
  •   ISO IEC
    De 132 32
    US 128 23
    UK 77 20
    Fr 75 24
    Jp 59 15
    Cn 24 5
    • 日本の標準化技術提案数
      63件 (4%) 2001-03
    • 欧州規格 CE (Communauté Européenne)マーク
    • 中国の挑戦
  • ISO 9000: 品質管理
    • QC活動の実績・改善運動
    • IBMPC・Open architecture
    • IBMはIBM互換機に圧倒される
  • 日本の弱点
    • Catch up policy
    • 追従では駄目: front runner
      • 環境・燃料電池・EV
    • 人材がいない:

>Top 5. Delayed in clinical applications:

  • In Japan, Theses of basic medical research more or less same level with those of European countries, but those of clinical research if far less than those of other countries.
  • European & US pharmaceutical industry is much stronger than that of Japan.
    • Generic drug: sales of pharmaceutical industry mostly depends a few number of patents of marketable products; the patent term is usually 20 years, extendable up to 25 years.
      • Actus of anti-diabetes and buropress of anti-hypertension medicines earn 20% of total sales.
      • After the patent term (20 years, extendable up to 25years), most of such sales are replaced by generic medicines.
      • 14 items are listed in the top sales of medicine worldwide are developed by Japanese pharmaceutical makers; 9 items of these will terminate the patent term by 2011.
    • >Top Development of new medicines is urged by the pharmaceutical makers, which requires lots of funds and times.
      • It takes 2-3 years in screening of chemical compound, then 3-5 years in non-clinical testing, and 5-10 in clinical testing; thereafter 2-3 year in applying as a proprietary medicine. It takes 10-20 years as a total, amounting ¥15-20B; the ratio of success would be 1/6000. (Drug lag)
    • Approved medication:
      • In 100 famous medication worldwide, unapproved drug is one in US, about 3 in EU, but 38 in Japan. (2008 Dr. Imura of Kyoto Univ.)
      • US National Cancer Institute publishes standard medication of anti-cancer; about 40% of which are not approved in Japan; this means that in Japan the medical treatment for cancer is done by nearly half kinds of medicines.
        • Therefore, Japanese pharmaceutical makers apply in foreign countries, causing hollowing capability of clinical testing.
    • Excess of imports of medical equipment:
      • In 2008 Japan produced medical equipment ¥1,690B, and exported ¥560B, while imported ¥1,090B (Export ratio about 50%)
        • from: US 58%; Ireland 10%; De 6%.
        • Imported items are such as heart pacemaker, artificial joint, artificial bone, artificial kidney, artificial dialyzer, catheter, artificial blood vessel, and ophthalmic supplies.
    • >Top Device lag:
      • Aortic stent graft: approved in EU in 1997, in US 1999, but 2006 in Japan.
      • 2008 Newsweek article: the ratio of usable medical devices in 2 in EU, 2.1 in US, but in only 1 in Japan.
        • Too delayed access to the latest medical devices in Japan, caused by obsoleted restriction systems in Japan.
        • Lack of examiners or judges: new drag examiners; 400 in Japan (2010), but 2200 in US (2006), 1100 in De, 900 in Fr, 700 in UK; furthermore the final decisions are made by Ministry of Health, Labor, & Welfare.
    • >Top Double routes of clinical trials, studies, or researches:
      • Approval by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: mostly by pharmaceutical companies.
      • Approval by Universities or Research institute:
      • Clinical data and know-how's could not be shared; no common database, no feedback to pharmaceutical industries.
        • If new medicine developed, which should be applied again based on the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
        • ¥US, EU, Asian countries have no such double routes of clinical studies.
      • ICH (International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use)
        • Japan is inactive in such international researches: US participated in 264 projects, De 171, Fr 132, UK 124, Kr 51, Cn 18, but Japan participated in only 6 projects. (Jp 60th in 87 countries in 2006)
          • Probably due to less number of doctors: US 3.1 per 1000, De 3.4, Fr 3.4, Kr 2.2, Jp 2.1; Cn 1.5 (4.1 in Beijing, 3.1 in Shanghai)
          • Even in the Tokyo Univ. Hospital retains 2200 staff (600 medical staff), Keio Univ 362 medial staff; vs. Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) 8000 (1700 medical staff)

5. 遅れが目立つ臨床応用:

  • 主要医学論文数 (2002-2007)
  Basic research Clinical research
US 2700


De 450 400
Jp 380 100
UK 300 900
Fr 250 300
  • 製薬業売上高:
    • 弱い日本の製薬企業
    • 特許期限問題
    • 資金と期間がかかる新薬開発
    • drug lag
Rank Phamaceutica
Sales 2008 $B
1 Pfizer, US 44.2
2 GlaxoSmithKline, UK 37.7
3 Sanophie?, Fr 36.3
4 ... ...
16 Takeda, Jp 13.4
20 Astellas, Jp 9.4
23 Daiichi Sankyo, Jp 7.7


  • 二重の臨床試験体制の問題
  • 国際共同治験への参加問題
    • 日本の医療医師・スタッフ不足




>Top 6. Every country competes in science & technology:

  • Vigorous policies to develope science & technology:
    • US: regards the leadership in science & technology directly related to the national security.
      • 1957: Sputnik shock; established NASA, increased scientific budget, developed large computer.
      • Development of super computers: simulated nuclear arms test.
      • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI), Ma; marine research ships supported by US Navy:
      • Internet is originated by the development of ARPANET.
      • Development and civil release of GPS.
      • Various R&D in boundary conditions.
      • Donation culture ($300B/2009), vs. Jp ($6B/2008) by mostly private corporations, not by individuals.
      • US private foundations: Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Foundation, Ford Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Warren Edward Buffett, etc.
      • Power of language: English is widely used in science & technology.
      • Nobel laureates: US 215 by 2009
      • Spirit of without fear of failure: (Frontier spirit)
      • VC challenges to develop cutting-edge device or equipment for challengers.
      • Obama 2009/9: Strategy for American Innovation; the goal is to establish sustainable growth and creation of quality jobs.
        • Federal government invest 3 building blocks of innovation; fundamental research, human capital and infrastructure. (>Fig.)
      • Innovation and Growth by OECD in 2007:
  • European tradition of modern science:
    • Early universities: Bologna University 1088, where Nicolaus Copernicus once studied; Paris University c1150; Oxford University 1167;
    • US: Harvard University 1636
    • Jp: Tokyo University 1877; China Beijing University 1898. (several hundreds year after European universities.)
    • But scientist as an occupation appears in 19C in Europe:
      • Cavendish Laboratory belong to Cambridge University was established in 1871.
      • Pasteur Institute was established in 1887.
      • Nature was published inn 1869.
  • >Top EC/EU development:
    1. 1952: European Coal and Steel Community ECSC
    2. 1954: Conseil Européen pur la Rechereche Nucléaire (CERN), European Laboratory for Particle Physics.; LHC 27km, established.
    3. 1957: Euratom 1957; nuclear development
    4. 1975: European Space Agency, ESA 1975, Arian rocket.
    5. 2000: Framework Programmes, FP; EP7 (€7.2B/y)/EP8/FP8, Horizon 2020; support collaborative R&D by not less than 3 countries in EU. Also it promote to utilized human resources of eastern Europe, or even including Russia.
    6. 2000/3: Lisbon Strategy to promote better employment as much as possible to attain sustainable economic gr0wth, and to make EU the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy. (IT technology, activated market, full employment, and business competitiveness)
    7. 2001: Airbus, 2001; A300, A320
    8. 2002: European Council in Barcelona: aims 3% R%D in GDP. (which is 1.9% in 2000)
    • to procure Human resources from Easter Europe.
  • China had been technological superpower:
    • 105: discovered paper by Cài Lún; which brought to Jp via Korea (610)
    • 7C: gunpowder; Yuán dynasty attacked Jp using gunpowder (13C).
    • 11C: compass; brought Age of Discovery (15-17C).
    • 11C: printing: brought Gutenberg printing (1445).
    • established Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM): (since 202BC)
    • 1964: developed A-bomb.
    • 1966-76: stagnancy of science during the Cultural Revolution period:
    • 1978-92: Dèng Xiǎopíng; Chinese reform and opening; Four of modernization (manufacture, agriculture, defense, and science technology)
      • R&D budge (2007): US ¥12T, Jp ¥3.3T, Cn ¥1.4T)
      • R&D growth: Cn 23 times (1991→2007); Jp 2 times
      • Technical staff growth: Cn 0.7M/2000→1.4M/2007; Jp around 0.7M.
      • Univ. Graduates growth: Cn 4.5M/2007; Jp 0.75M/2007
      • Doctrials: US 22K; Cn 21K; De 8.9K; UK 7.7K; Jp 7.2K
      • Younger leaders: Cn 40s-early 50s, which are about 20 years younger than Japan. (hǎiguī zhèngcè 海归, 海龟政策)

6. 各国とも科学技術を最重点に:

  • Obama: Strategy for American Innovation 2009:


>Top 7. Status-quo of Japanese science & technology: (日本の科学技術の現状)

  • % of Research paper: by Thomson Reuters 'Web of Science'
    • US 27.9%; Cn 10.4%; UK 7.7%; De 7.5%, Jp 7.0%, Fr 5.4%
  • Relative Citation Rate (RCR): by Thomson Reuters 'Web of Science'
    • US 1.51; UK 1.42; De 1.37; Ca 1.29; Fr 1.25; It 1.21; Jp 1.02; Kr 0.77; Cn 0.68
  • Published paper in 'Nature':
    • US 61.7; UK 19.6; De 12.7; Fr 7.6; Jp 6.6; Cn 3.4
  • Published paper in 'Science':
    • US 70.6; UK 15.8; De 11.4; Fr 7.4; Jp 6.2; Cn 2.9
  • Published paper in 'The New England Journal of Medicine':
    • US 60.2; UK 11.0; Fr 6.7; De 6.6; Cn 1.6; Jp 1.5
  • # of Ranking of universities top 100 by 'Times': 2009
    • US 32 (Harvard); UK 18 (Cambridge) ; Au 8 (ANU); Jp 6 (Tokyo Univ); Ca 4 (McGill); Ch 4 (Zurich); De 4 (Munich); HK (HongKong); 3; Fr 2 (École Normale)
  • # of Nobel Laureate: (up to 2009)
    • US 215; UK 49; De 32; Fr 14; Jp 12
  • # of Patent applications:
    • Jp 500K; US 400K; Cn 200K; Kr 180K; De 140K; Fr 50K; UK 50K
  • Export amount of High-tech products: (2008)
    • Cn $437B; US $348; De $246B; Jp $138B; Fr $ 127B; Kr $122B; UK $105B
  • Export share of High-tech each product: (2008)
  • Total JP US De Fr UK Cn Kr Ca Ru Others
    Hi-tech industry 6.4 14.3 10.1 5.2 4.3 18.0 5.0 1.7 0.1 34.7
    Aerospace 1.6 35.5 13.9 17.5 9.8 0.9 0.3 5.2 0.4 14.2
    Electronics 9.9 10.7 5.5 2.0 1.8 25.0 8.8 1.2 0.1 34.9
    Office Computer 5.7 11.0 7.5 2.1 2.8 36.3 3.4 1.0 0.1 30.1
    Medicine 1.1 9.4 15.9 7.9 7.6 2.8 0.3 1.4 0.1 53.6
    Precision/Optical 8.8 17.1 13.7 4.8 4.1 11.2 6.7 1.4 0.3 32.0

>Top 8. Challenge and contribution through science & technology:

  • Re recognize the importance of science & technology in 21C:
    • Government fund for R&D: (2007)
      US ¥12.4T; EU ¥12.4T; Jp ¥3.3T; Cn ¥1.4T
    • Growth of R&D budget during 2000-2008:
      Cn 436%; Kr 289%; EU15 213% (UK 192%, De 184%, Fr 165%); US 185&; Jp 109%
    • Target of government fund for R&D:
      • Jp should establish 1% target of GDP: (now about 0.82%)
      • US is 2.8% → aims more than 3% of GDP
  • Regional cooperation, particularly with east Asian countries: CJK+ASEAN10+ANZ
    • Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP)
    • HQ should be in a foreign country; find a neutral center like Brussels of EU.
    • Site location of large common utilities.

8. 科学技術で世界に挑戦・貢献を:

  • 21Cの科学技術の重要性の再認識
  • These words frequently appear related to Japanese morale standards: vested right, conjecture, swindle, concealment, falsification, submission, authoritarian, harassment, etc.
  • These are positioned at the antipodal from the mind of science.
  • 昨今日本のモラル基準に関してよく登場する用語がある。既得権・忖度・欺瞞・隠蔽・改竄・忍従・権威主義、ハラスメント等々。
  • これらは科学精神の対蹠に位置する。

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