>Top 2. Disfavoring science-oriented personnel:
- Number of scientific researchers: (>Fig.)
- Japan is nearly half in number of scientific researchers compared with EU, US, and Cn.
- In addition, frequency of interchange of researchers is less in Japan, such as number of research fora or workshops.
- Disinteresting trend in studying science in Japanese education, since 1987.:
- Decreasing number of application for scientific course in university:
- Deteriorating ability of mathematics.
- Trend of science favoring pupils:
- 1st grade of elementary school: 90%
- 6th grade of elementary school: 60%
- 3rd grade of junior high school: 40%
- Problem may be teachers: Teaching ability of science:
- Teachers in elementary school: 27% good 62% bad
- Awareness of science; asking pupils whether science is useful or not:
- Elementary & Junior high school:
showing more negative response that science, math are useful in life, compared with Japanese language, foreign language and social studies.
- Senior high school:
80% useful of language & social studies, but only 40% for math, physics, chemistry, and geology.
- >Top Enrollment capacity at University:
- Japan has been retained relatively larger number of enrollment in faculties of science and technology since Meiji era.; National universities and major private universities like Waseda and Keio.
- But now students are decreasing in number aiming these faculties
- Segmentation began earlier in high schools preparing entrance examination: examination subjects differ between the course for social science and natural science.
- Quality and number of math and science differ between them:
- Math (including calculus), physics, and chemistry are compulsory subjects in natural science course.
- Decreasing of applicants to science & technology:
- To faculty of technology: 900K in 1990 to 533 in 2008
- To faculty of science: mostly constant around 96K
- The ration of science & technology was around 20%, but now 15%, and approaching around 10%.
- Busy students of science & technology:
- Studying time per day: natural science 319 min. (5.3h) vs. social science 219 min. (3.7h).
- >Top Tuition fee:
- National Universities are same tuition fee between natural science and social science.
- But average fee in private universities: natural science ¥5.14M vs. social science ¥3.87M (Difference ¥1.27M)
- In addition, students majored in natural science tend to promote additional 2 year master course. (plus ¥1.35M in national univ. vs. ¥2.28 in private univ.)
- furthermore, cost of living (accommodation, etc.) is added for 2 additional years studying.
- Employment market:
- Graduates of science & technology faculties; who thought knowledge of mathematics or other science could be useful to find jobs, but actually those are not favorable conditions.
- Employment opportunities for them is not so large compared with graduate who chose social science.
- Lifetime salary is that graduate of natural science is about ¥50M less.
- probably because of difference of industry; manufacturers vs. financial institutions, and also of speed of promotion.
- The ratio of graduates of natural science; Diet members 19%; presidents of listed companies 28%; ministers of Koizumi cabinet 11%; 3% of vice-minister of ministries.
- top of corporations: 55% in Fr, 54% of UK/De
- In China, most of top leaders are graduate of natural science, who have promoted the top position after gaining practical experiences at each local area.
- >Top Post-doctoral problem:
- Postdoctoral researchers who are not employed as lifetime positions.
- Number of postdoctoral in Japan:
6,201/1991 →16,450/2009 →17,945/2010
- working: 12,672 at univ; and at public organizations: 5,273
- Ages: 30-34 (42%); less 29 (24.5%); 35-39 (19.3%)
- Women researchers: over 40 (31.9%)
- >Top tenure: guaranteed permanent employment
- In Japanese corporations; employed graduates are mostly tenured.
- But postdoctorals are not tenured. (a kind or reverse discrimination)
- The position of university educators is narrow strait:
- Supply: around 6,000 plus postdoctoral 11,000 = 17,000;
- while the demand: annual adopters: around 2,000 (only 12%)
- only 11% of private companies annually adopt postdoctorals. (2007)
- Principal Investigator (PI): head of laboratory or research group, or usually the first author of the thesis.
- Established major professors are mostly PI's; younger researchers could not be PI's. (apprentice system)
- Aging professors:
- Professors 68,000 (39.7%) in all educators 172,000.
- But 25,000 professors (37.2%) out of 68,000 are more than 60 years old.
- Gender gap in scientific researchers:
- 'The Global Gender Gap Report 2009': Japan is 77th in 134 countries.
- salary disparity is 88th, and position of politician, higher bureaucrat, and top managers of companies are particularly bad 109th.
- No gender gap in capability of science in elementary & junior high school.; but the gap widens from senior high school, probably due to social reasons, such as considering future possibility of employment.
- gender gap in # of graduates:
Italy 45.1%, US/UK/De/Fr more than 30%, but Japan less than 20% (=19.7%)
- Pressure of childcare and family care:
- Women researchers particularly require: 1) difficulty of housework and childcare 66.2%; 2) difficult return from childbirth 46.2%; 3) no considering childcare & family care 36.2%
- >Top Fewer foreign researchers in Japan:
- 21C is the century of knowledge; each advanced country scrambles to get able researchers and engineers. Particularly, US, EU, or Singapore are these countries. Even China and India having large population recalled able international students who studied in US or EU.
- Japan with decreasing population should be more active to invite foreign researchers, preparing more favorable environment for them.
- Foreign students studying in Japan numbers around 120K, while US is 580K, and UK is 380K.
- Foreign postdoctorals shares in Jp about 10%, while US or UK more than 40%; probably caused by communication language.
- Foreign educators in Jp numbers about 59K in universities 2008 (3.5% of total), and 0.9K in institutions (5.8%).
- IPMU is exceptional: foreign researchers shares more than 2/3 in 1000.
- Murayama, Director of IPMU comments about the difficulty of inviting foreign researchers, because of 1) global leveled pay, 2) half subsidy for international school for foreign researchers' children, 3) mediation of accommodation, 4) mediation of employment of espouse, 5) support of getting credit card, and 6) tenure issue is serious, which is not approved at IPMU.
- Manufactiring Japan: Monozukuri Nippon
- disinterest in science: 理科離れ
- tenure: 終身在職
- strait gate: 狭き門
strait is the gate and narrow is the way which leadeth unto life.
- as premises for: を前提として
- Number of Scientific Researchers (2007): full-time equivalent.
- 日: 定職に就けないポスドク
- Ratio of women researchers:
- Women Educators in universities:
- 中根千枝教授: 東大初の女性教授1970
- 7大学総長による男女共同参画宣言 2008
- Women educators in all universities in Japan (2008):
- Women educators are postioned in lower status; function as an assistant.