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Open Data

Open Data

Pub: 2014
#: 1429b

Masahiko Shoji (庄司昌彦), GLOCOM, etc.


Open Data


  1. Preface
  2. Definiton and Objective:
  3. Open Data Movement:
  4. Open Data Business:
  5. Open Data as Global Strategy:
  6. Promotion of Open Data:
  7. Ref-1: File Format for Open Data:
  8. Ref-2: Open Data market estimate:
  9. Ref-3: Creative Commons:
  10. Ref-4: SECI Model:
  1. 序文:
  2. 定義と目的:
  3. オープンデータの活動:
  4. オープンデータ・ビジネス:
  5. 国際戦略としてのオープンデータ:
  6. オープンデータの推進:
  7. 参考1: オープンデータ用ファイル形式:
  8. 参考2: オープンデータ市場規模:
  9. 参考3: クリエイティブコモンズ:
  10. 参考4: SECIモデル:
Definition of Open Data; OGP; Open Data Business; COE; CPDD/SECI; Time lag 10 years; Five Stars Open Data; RDF; SA; ;
  • "Chijo" (Interplays) #119  of Gloom Journal, issued special theme of "Open Data" in Oct.., 2014.
  • This concept is getting more important in the second stage of utilization of the Internet.
  • Here is the key concept of this theme.
  • 国際大学GLOCOMの定期雑誌「智場#119」はオープンデータ特集である。
  • オープンデータは、インターネットの第2ステージとして一層重要になってきている。
  • 以下、このテーマでのキーワードである。

>Top 0. Preface:

  • What is Open Data?:
    • What is the difference with Not-open Data?
    • What for? Real democracy? More efficiency?
    • or more creative activities?
    • is it good for general public, private sector, or even government?
    • Does is contribute national competitiveness?
    • What it the quantity and quality of data?
    • Who pays the cost of making the data open?
    • Is there any process, mechanism, or rules to make data open?
    • Is there any epoch-making tools to make data open easily?
  • What is the advanced cases of Open Data?
    • Where is the most prevailing area or country to promote Open Data policy?
    • What are obstacles or restrictions not to promote Open Data policy?
    • Who is getting profit by maintaining Not-open data policy?

0. 序文:

  • オープンデータとは
    • オープンと非オープンの違い
    • オープンデータ推進の道筋
    • 費用負担、利益享受は
    • オープンデータ先進事例
    • オープンデータ化が進まない理由

>Top 1 Definition and Objective:

  • Freely available data, or more 'liquid' (open, widely available, and shareable) particularly due to the rise of the Internet.
  • The Open Definition: "Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness.)"
  • >Top Open Data = Easily Usable Data: >right figure
    • Legally Open:
      • not only to make open to the public, but also to make easier to use (terms of use)
      • "开放条件" in Chinese expression
    • Technically Open:
      • To make easier to retrieve (format, lexical accessability)
      • To make Linked open data.
      • To open API
  • Objective of Open Data:
    1. Democracy and Transparency:
      • To enhance quality of democracy
      • To pursue globally linked society
      • To participate formation of new rules
    2. Open government & society:
      • Principles of open government comprises 1) Transparency, 2) Participation, & 3) Collaboration.
      • To promote public-private sector collaboration; multi-stakeholders
      • CKAN (Data portal site)
      • Creative Commons
    3. Economic effect: To produce new economic value;
      • Success of GPS (creates $90B market annually)
      • World wide effect: estimated Euro 200B or more (Vickery, 2011)
        • In Japan ¥5.5T ($55B) annually.
      • Open Data application: 1) Data % technology, 2) Finance & Investment, 3) Business & legal services (The GovLab (CC BY-SA 4.0)
  • Legal personality and commercial registration: are not open data in Japan.
    • occlusive data; only allowed to publish through affiliated association with pay basis.
  • Ideathon, Hackerthon, & Markethon:
    • Ideathon = Idea + Marathon; a brain-storming producing ideas in a short time.
    • Hackerthon = Hacking (coding) + Marathon; coding prototype software in a short time.
    • Markethon = Market + Marathon; to consider effective services, idea of proliferation, etc. in a short time.
    • Businessthon = Business + Marathon; to consider feasibility study for a real business using such ideas in a short time.
  • Quasi-Open Data:
    • Though there are various 'Open Data', but has various restriction to use it (allowed for particular use, or for particular organization, etc.)
    • These data should be called 'Quasi-Open Data'; which still retains some barriers to become Open Data.  

1. 定義と目的:

  • 開放資料
  • 利便性の向上
    • 利用条件の緩和
    • APIの提供
    • 外部団体のみの利用撤廃
  • Open Data政策
    • 透明性
    • 官民共同
    • 経済性・効率性
  • Open Dataとは容易に利用可能
    • 機密情報との関連
    • 公開情報との違い


  • Open Dataの目的
    1. 民主主義と透明性
    2. オープン政府と社会
    3. 経済効果
  • 法人商用登録は日本は非Open
    • 特定団体のみ有料で開示
  • アイデアソン
    • ハッカーソン
    • マーケッソン
  • 準オープンデータ
  • Open Dataビジネスの構造
    (by Tomihiko Azuma, 2014)


>Top 2.  Open Data Movement:

  • >Top OGP (Open Government Partnership) was launched in 2011 to provide international platform.
    • now 65 countries participated.
    • Objective: governments become more sustainably transparent, accountable, responsible to citizens; improving quality of services.
  • Open Knowledge Festival, Berlin, 2014
    • Biggest open data and open knowledge conference; 1,000 people from 60 countries.
    • further the forces of openness as a positive force for change.
    • focus on participation and interaction, rather than just presenting.
    • Use "Etherpad", OSS online editor providing collaborative editing in real time.

2. オープンデータ活動:

  • GGP (Open Government Partnership, 2010)
  • OKF, Berlin, 2014

>Top 3. Open Data Business:

  • Open for Business: How Open Data can help achieve the G20 growth target?: estimated $13T in 5 years.
    • 55% of GDP growth of G20 (2%) will be derived from Open Data related business.
    • Summary of business opportunities:
      • To normalize & make cleaning of the original data for easier use as open data.
      • To support installation of portal site of open data (particularly of various public data), or its hosting services.
      • To make visualization or mapping of the open data
      • To create new services utilizing open data.
    • >Top Two categories of Open Data Business:
      1. Application using open data: such as:
        • 'CKAN' ; open data portal service developing & operation UK 'data.gov.uk'
        • 'Socrata' : open data portal service of US local governments.
      2. Creating of a new business using open data; such as:
        • 'Total Weather Insurance' ; guaranteeing revenue for agriculture business
        • 'MRIS  (Metropolitan Regional Information Systems)' and 'HomeSnap' ; information service for purchase of real estate
        • 'Opower' ; advice for energy saving
        • 'Zillow'; price evaluation of own real estate
        • 'BillGuard'; warning service against illegal use of credit card
        • 'iTriage' ; advice for introducing appropriate hospitals
        • 'mypp.ie'; checking latest status of application for house construction.
  • Structure of Open Data: (by Tomihiko Azuma, 2014) > right figure
  • Open data as the springboard of economics:
    • It is costly for private sector to gain the public data.
    • Open data is supplied by the government by free charge & easy way.
    • Private sector could concentrate to develop excellent analysis model and algorithm for it, which would be competitive tool in the market.
    • Europe and US aim to us open data as the springboard for their economic jump.
  • Pure effect by using Open Data: (>right figure)
  • >Top Time lag of economic effect:
    • Cases of GPT (General Purpose Technology):
      • Electricity: 40 years
      • Internet: 25 years
      • Open Data: could be about 10 years
    • Methodology of forecast:
      • by hearing research; subjective estimate
      • Macroscopic estimate would be too much estimate; due to neglecting the cases of using other data than open data.
      • Microscopic estimate would be too less estimate; due to inability considering all cases.
    • Economic effect by using open data would be around 7.5%
      • Because, ACIL Tasman estimated 5-15% of economic effect caused by using modern spatial information technology by open data.
    • Decision making:
      • The economic effect could be estimated about 7.5% after about 10 years.
      • GDP of Japan is about ¥900T; share of Open Data would be 0.2 - 3%.
      • Does the estimate of economic effect by open data could be regarded as the national top prioritized policy?
      • Is there any other GPT in coming 10 years?

3. オープンデータビジネス:

  • オープンデータの純効果
    (by Toshiya Jitsuzumi)


  • Open Dataの構造


  • Shift of Open Data:
    By Hiroichi Kawashima

shift of open data

>Top 4. Open Data as the global strategy:

  • US: President Obama: 'Open Government Strategy, 2009/1; discussion of Government 2.0:
    • Data Act.
    • World Bank, Washington DC
    • O'Rally Media; movement of 'Code for America'
  • >Top EU: 'Reuse of Public Sector Information, since the first 2000s, aiming COE (Center of Excellence) of Open Data.
    • OKF (Open Knowledge Foundation), Cambridge, UK; performed 'Open Data Census'
    • CKAN Association (Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network)
    • ODI (Open Data Institute), London, UK; performed 'Open Data Barometer' with WWW Foundation
    • OGL (Open Government Licence) 2.0; 
      • a part of UK Government Licencing Framework (UKGLF)
      • allows information to be used and reused with virtually no restrictions.
    • Tim Berners-Lee; proposing 'Linked Open Data'; 'Raw Data Now!'
    • OECD, Paris
  • World:
    • OGP (Open Government Partnership), by G8 summit.
    • Main agenda by UK: 3K (Tax, Trade, Transparency); Open data is a part of Transparency issue.
    • Worries about open data:
      • of transparency
      • of consistency of data
      • of procedure making open data
      • of response to the question about open data

 4.  国際戦略としてのオープンデータ

  • 米国と英国での先進的な動き
    • やはり英語の優位性か


>Top 5. Promotion of Open Data:

  • Preferable circulation of creation Open Data; by Yoshinobu Soda:
  • Four stages of creating open data:
    1. To create data
    2. To provide data; needs transparency
    3. To analyze data; needs participation
    4. To develop, and support to business creation; needs collaboration
  • Open Data are innovation of public sector;
  • Innovation is a process of creating values;
  • >Top Correlation of Open Data Creation (CPDD Model) and SECI Model: >right figure 

5. オープンデータの推進:

  • Circulaiton of Open Data:


>Top 6. <Ref-1> File Format for Open Data:

  • Tim Berners-Lee suggested 5-Star deployment scheme for Open Data.
    What are the costs & benefits of ☆ Web data?
    • Five Star Open Data:
    • As a customer: you can
      • look at it
      • print it.
      • store it locally.
      • enter the data into any other system
      • change the data
      • share the data
    • As a publisher:
      • publish simply
      • need not explain repeatedly to other that they can use your data.
    • >Top Five Stars Open Data:
    1. Star - On the web with an open license; making data available on the web with an appropriate license to reuse is the first step.
    2. Star - Machine -readable data; Machin-readable data are structured and predictable, with well  established and known e¥ways to query and consume it using software code.; CSV file could look like this. XML call ATOM and JSON are most commonly used to deliver the data when establishing API.
    3. Star - Non-proprietary formats; The data is in a format that does not require specific software or systems to access it. CSK file can be opened in any spreadsheet software, whether is Excel, Open Office, an iPad app etc.
    4. Star -RDF Standards; Resource Description Framework  which is a framework for describing resources on the web. RDF breaks down data into a series of facts: Subject, Predicate, Object.
    5. Star - Linked RDF: goes a step further and describes meaning by making reference to "a source of meaning" on the web. The link in Linked RDF is via a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) that contains the information, or an address plus a query to the database at that location.

6. 参考1: オープンデータ用ファイル形式

  • オープンデータ評価フォーマット:
  • 5stars

  1. ともかくWeb上に公開
  2. ★★
  3. ★★★
  4. ★★★★
  5. ★★★★★



>Top 7. <Ref-2>  Open Data market estimate (by McKinsey & Co., 2013/10)


7. 参考2: オープンデータ市場
(by McKinsey, 2013/10)

>Top 8. <Ref-3> Creative Commons:

  • Creative Commons: governed by applicable copyright law; established in 2001
    • Attribution (BY): give the author or licensor the credits.
    • >Top Share-alike (SA); may distribute derivative works only under identical license that governs the original work.
    • Non-commercial (NC); may distribute only for non-commercial purpose.
    • No derivative works (ND): may distribute only verbatim copies of the work (not derivative works)
    • Regularly used licenses are as follows:
      • BY
      • BY+ND
      • BY+SA
      • BY+NC
      • BY+NC+ND
      • BY+NC+SA

8. 参考3: クリエイティブ・コモンズ:

  • クリエイティブコモンズ:
    • 表示 (BY):著作権者の表示
    • 継承 (SA):改変作品も元と同じライセンス
    • 非営利 (NC):
    • 改変禁止 (ND):
  • 通常以下の5種類
    • BY
    • BY+ND
    • BY+SA
    • BY+NC
    • BY+NC+ND
    • BY+NC+SA

>Top 9. <Ref-4> SECI Model:

  • Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi proposed the knowledge creating process; called SECI Model.
    • Knowledge creation is a continuous process of interaction of implicit (tact) and explicit knowlege.
    1. Socialization: To communicate & recognize & confirm implicit knowlege through F2F like appreenticeship.
    2. Externalization: To embed & develop combined implicit knowledge into explicit one.
    3. Combination: To try & apply explicit knowledge into prototype, and recongnize a new discovery.
    4. Internalization: To understand & reflect the in-depth knowledge through activities.

9. <参考> SECIモデル

  1. 共同化:暗黙知の共有・創造
  2. 表出化:暗黙知の形式知化
  3. 結合化:形式知の組合・発展
  4. 内面化:経験の新たな暗黙知化秋の結実
  • Both 'Open' and 'Data' are quite common words, but it is a long way to attain 'Open Data.'
  • オープンとデータもごく普通の言葉だが、オープンデータ実現へは長い道のりである。

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