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What we've learned from Linus Torvalds

- The success of Linx to four primary principles -

Cat: ICT
Pub: 2013
Jim Zemlin
up 14914


What we've learned from Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvaldsから学んだこと

  1. Preface:
  2. Lesson-1: Don't dream big:
  3. Lesson-2: Give it all away:
  4. Lesson-3: Don't have a plan:
  5. Lesson-4; Don't have to be a pretty nice person:
  1. 序文:
  2. 教訓1: 成功を求めるな
  3. 教訓2: 全てを無料で公開せよ:
  4. 教訓3: 計画を立てるな:
  5. 教訓4: 常にいい人である必要はない:
Linus Torvalds; The Linux Foundation; CERN; NY Stock Exchange; Chicago Mercantile Exchange; Michelangelo; Da Vinci; Red Hat, IBM, and Microsoft; Apple; GNU; Free Software Foundation; Self-forming communities; Code wins arguments; All of us are smarter than any one of us
  • Jim Zemlin told the secrets of success of Linux at TEDx (independently organized TED event) in 2013/3/23 at Portland, OR.
  • This presentation was one of the most impressive one.
  • Jim Zeminは2013/3/23のTEDxにて、Linux成功の秘密を語った。
  • このプレゼンは最も印象深いものの一つである。

>Top 0. Introduction:

  • So many of you many not recognize this person on the screen. He lives here in Portland, Oregon. He was named the 17th most influential person on the century by Time magazine. This is Linus Torvalds, and if you've never heard of him, you've probably heard of the software he created. Linus Torvalds created Linux, the world most successful software. It runs everything. I'm not kidding. It's in your phone, it's in a car, it's in your TV; it runs your bank. It runs most of the global economy. It runs air traffic control systems, nuclear submarines, it urns most of the Internet. You use Linux every single day, multiple times a day, and you don't even know it. So if you're in the tech industry, you for sure have heard of Linus Torvalds and almost none of you have ever heard of me.
  • I'm Linus Torvalds' boss! (Executive Director of The Linux Foundation) of one of the 17 most influential guys of the century, wrote the world's most prolific software. Who else works for this guy. The person who created the Internet? So first of all, no, Al Gore does not work for me. But le me show you a couple of others who do. These two. Especially that little girl there. That's my daughter. My 4½-year-old daughter, Nisha. And what's funny is Nisha actually shares a lot in common with Linus Torvalds. no it's true. First of all, they're both adorable. Second they're both geniuses. And finally, neither of them listens to anything that I say. In other words, I'm nobody's boss. But fortunately, Linus Torvalds doesn't really need a boss. He's got this great mascot, this penguin. And Linux really had done very successfully despite me.
  • And let me show you a few numbers, just to give you an idea of what this looks like. 1.3M smart phones running Linux are activated every single day. 700,000 TV are sold every single day running Linux. 92% of the world high-performance computing systems that predict climate change, forecast the weather, run the CERN supercollider are all running Linux. 85% of world's global equity trading platforms run Linux; The NY Stock Exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange, most of our economy runs on Linux. 1,000 trillion dollars is the amount transactions that happen on just one Linux system, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It runs Google, Facebook, Amazon, and most of the Internet; it is by far the world's most widely deployed software. So, how does Linus do it? and why should you care for this matter? Well, he does it collaboratively, by working with thousands of developers, all across the world, in different countries, performing a grand act of creation.
  • And I'm just a bit player in this grand play that's been unfolding over the last 20 years. But as a witness to all of this, and technically a Linus' boss, I've learned some lessons that I'd like to share with you today, so that you might become better collaboration, so that you might achieve the same success as someone like Linus and something like Linux. And some of thee lessons may surprise you.

0. 序文:

  • Linux創始者 Linus Torvaldsの素描
  • The Linux FoundationのExcecutrive DirectorであるJim Zemlinの講演


  • Linux普及の現状
  • もっとも成功したソフトウェア
  • スーパーコンピュータからスマートフォンまで



  • CERN
  • NY Stock Exchange
  • Chicago Mercantile Exchange

>Top 1. Lesson-1: "Don't dream big":

  • The first lesson I learn is "Don't dream big", don't dream big. This is the email from Linus Torvalds over 20 years ago, announcing the creation of Links, "I'm not doing anything big. Jut something for fun."
  • And what's interesting here, whether it was intentional or not, Minus was paraphrasing a poet, Robert Frost, who said, "Don't aim for success if that's what you want. Do what you love, and believe in and it will follow. " And I think it's appropriate that Minus was paraphrasing a poem, because what's happening behind thousands of computer screens all over the world is a renaissance. Michelangelo, Da Vinci, and Reflew of their day are creating great poetry. And there doing it because they love it. Minus felt so strongly about this that he wrote an entire book on it. And he titled it "Just for Fun".
  • Because when you're doing this kind of grand creation and collaboration, when you doing it because you love it and you believe in it and you can create great things. And let me tell you that there is a difference between house-painter and Da Vince And the grand code poets who are writing this truly believe in what they're doing. It is making a huge difference throughout the world. And because they believe in it so much they don't care about lesson 2, which is "Give it all away", Give it away.

1. 教訓1;成功を求めるな

  • 成功を夢見るのではなく、興味のあることを推進すべき


  • Michelangelo
  • Da Vinci

>Top 2. Lesston-2: "Give It all away":

  • You see Linus is open source. Anybody can take and use it completely for free. You don't have to ask permission, you can just take Linux, grab it, build anything you want. In fact the only thing you have to do is if you make changes to Linux, and improve it, you have to share those changes with everybody else.
  • And when I tell people this, they think, "You guys are idiots. You should have seen the crest-fallen look on my wife's face on our first date when I told her I worked in a non-profit.
  • Nobody can make any money giving things away, right?. Well, that's not true and I'm going to prove it to you. What if I showed you three companies: one based entirely free and open source software, one based partially free and open source software, and one that's completely based on closed software. They don't give anything away they sell it. What do you think the results from those companies would look like. This is a chart showing Red Hat, IBM, and Microsoft results for the last five years. And at the top, Red Hat, a software company that gives away free software that bases their entire company on free software self-service and support, has gone up almost 200% in the last five years.
  • IBM, which all of you have heard of, it might surprise you to know. They sell billions of dollars of hardware which contain entirely free software. And Microsoft at the bottom sells closed software create that they create by themselves and sell for a price. In the last half-decade they have returned almost no shareholder value. So when I tell people this, they say, "OK, Jim, this makes sense. We get it, but there's just one pole we can put into your argument. I mean it makes sense, Red Hat's doing well, this is a movement that we think is the future, but what about Apple?" You think you all got me, right? How many people here have an iPhone? Alright, I want you to do something with me. Take it out, go into the Settings, go into General,
  • About and Legal Notices. and you're going to see something interesting in there. Inside of every iPhone, every iPad, there is free software. You'll see the GNU public license from the Free Software Foundation, you will see the name of prominent open source developers. You'll see oodles and oodles of free software. Because Apple knows something that many people don't, but that I'm showing you today. Which is when you stand on the shoulder of giants, when you use free software and take part in this grand collaboration, you can innovate at ever higher levels. And that's what Apple does, and it's pretty smart. So if anybody tells you, you can't make money by giving things away, you tell them they are wrong. And then tell them about my my next lesson.

2. 教訓2; 全て無料で公開せよ

  • 過去5年間の株価推移:
    Red Hat、IBM、Microsoft
  • 無償でに儲かる仕組み
  • Appleも実はOSSを内部で活用している。

>Top 3. Lesson-3; "Don't have a plan":

  • The best way to get something done is not to have a Plan; "Don't have a plan". The plan for Linux is there is no plan, Right? Well, it seems counter-intuitive, but you're not seeing the power of self-forming communities. When you collaborate you what people to create things organically. And that what happens within Linux. Organically, communities come together to solve their problems that if Linus Torvalds or me or anybody had tried to plan out, they would never have thought of. That's why Linux runs on a small hand-held phone and also powers the world largest supercomputers at the same time. And what happens here is an incredible cross-pollination of ideas, where the person trying to save on battery life in a phone by controlling the amount of power Linux uses helps the guy running the world biggest computer, because the number one cost is not the hardware, it's not the software, but it's the power in cooling.
  • So by creating these self-forming communities, they're exchanging theses ideas incredibly adding all this incredible value and producing at a pace that's unprecedented. And let me just show you how unprecedented that pace is; 10,519 and 6, 782 that is number of lines of code added to or subtract from Linux every single day. A million lines of code were added to Linux just in the last year. Homer's epic Iliad 15,000 lines, War and Peace about 450,000 words. Every single hour of every single day, seven changes happen in Linux. It is unprecedented and has resulted in over ten billion dollars value creation over the last 20 years. The most successful collaborative development project in the history of computing. 407 companies, thousands of individuals coming together in harmony. And speaking of harmony, that leads me to the next lesson, which is;

3. 教訓3; 計画を立てるな

  • オードマップがないのがLinuxのと特徴
  • 自律的な組織の活用に依存
  • 思わぬ組合せの創発があり得る

>Top 4. Lesson-4; "Don't have to be a pretty nice person.":

  • If you work that fast, and with that many people across this many cultures, you'd think you'd have to be a good at collaboration, right? And you'd think you'd have to be a pretty nice person to get along with all of thee people from different backgrounds. Well, you would be wrong. You don't always have to be nice.
  • In fact, Linus Torvalds, sometimes he's not so nice! Did I mention he doesn't listen to anything I have to say? But what Linus is doing here, is he's engaging in a flame war. Flame wars are how coders often communicate. they criticize each other, they defend their ideas, they ridicule code.
  • In this world code talks and BS works, right?. And you'd think this would be bad way to create software. Yelling at each other all the time, these guys are pretty mean.
  • Well, it's interesting, in 2003 University of Californio Berkeley did a study about how ideas are created, how you can create the best ideas. They took a bunch of people and they put them into groups. One group was given traditional brainstorming instructions No idea's a bad idea, don't criticize, all of that. How may people here have brainstormed? Right. Of course. Another group was given instructions; "Debate rigorously defend your ideas." And guess what the debate group didn't just do better, they crushed it. They came up with an order of magnitude better ideas. As so what does all of this mean?
  • How can you not dream big, give it away, not have have a plan and be a jerk and get anything done comparatively? Maybe Linus torvalds can get away with it. But other people are catching onto this too. And this is really the future of collaboration. And I'm going to show you that by asking you a quick question. Who do you think said the following statements? Code wins arguments. The best idea and implementation should always win.
  • The hacker way is an approach to building that involves continuous improvement and iteration. Hackers believe that something can always be better and that nothing is ever complete. Sounds like something Linus torvalds would say, right? In fact, he's said things like this over and over again over the last 20 years. But he didn't say it. Mark Zuckerberg said this. And what's more important than the fact that Mark Zuckerberg sad it, is when he said it. Mark Zuckerberg said this on the eve of Facebook's IPO. This guy was about to become a multi-billionaire. And on the eve of the most anticipated financial event of the last decade, INTAC, he didn't talk about price-earnings ratio or profitability. Instead he wrote a letter titled; "The Hacker Way; Code wins arguments, may the the best idea and implementation win." Because Mark Zuckerberg didn't have to be taught these lessons they were instinct. When he created Facebook, he grabbed Linux, he grabbed free software, and he created the world's largest social network. And he was following a form of collaboration that has introduced an entirely new genre of the way that people can get things done.
  • And this new genre of collaboration can be summed in a simple idea. All of us are smarter than any one of us. Because you see, there's whole generation of code poets out there working furiously. Poets who love what they do who may not always get along, but are creating the next Google and the next Facebook. These individuals have created the coal and steel of the information age. and instead of that coal and steel being owned by the Carnegies, it's owned by everyone. That is the future.
  • The future is a world in which you can enrich yourself, while at the same time enriching others. It's going to be a pretty good place. And in that world, and I have to admit I may be talking myself out of a job here, you don't need a boss.
  • Thank you very much.

4. 教訓4: 常にいい人である必要はない

  • 大組織は、むしろ激しい議論が必要
  • 議論よりもコードによる動作優先。






  • GoogleやFacebookは、情報革命の時代の石炭や鉄鋼に相当



  • All of us are smarter than any one of us.
  • 特定の誰よりも大勢の方がよりスマート


  • Strategy of Linux looks like quite unique, which will not respect individual intelligence, but collective one.
  • In a word, it is "Open Mind."
  • Human being has four different functions of of our brain, each prefers short-sighted profit and pleasure. (Herrmann model)
    • Right-side of cerebral neocortex prefers to have big dream, being passionate to attain it.
    • Left-side of limbic system prefers to calculate profit & loss, being reluctant to give all away for free.
    • Left-side of cerebral neocortex prefers logical thinking, establishing plan and final goal.
    • Right-side of limbic system prefers good reputation, being pretend to be a nice person.
  • Linuxの戦略は非常にユニークである。それは個人の知に依らず、集合知に依るからである。
  • 一言でいえば、"オープンマインド"である。
  • 大脳には4つの得意領域があり、それぞれ短期の利益や喜びを感じる (ハーマンモデル)
    • 右脳新皮質:大きな夢を抱き情熱を注ぐ
    • 左脳辺縁系:損得勘定により無料提供をいやがる。
    • 左脳新皮質:論理思考で、計画立案と目標を立てたがる。
    • 右脳辺縁系:評判を気にして、いい人であろうとする

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