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Renewables
2014

Summary of REN21 Report 2014


Cat: ENE
Pub: 2014
#: 1420b

Renewable Energy Policy Network for 21st Century

UP 14911
Titile

Summary of REN21 Report 2014

REN21再生可能エネルギー報告2014

 
Why
  • REN21 is a globally networked organization who provides neutral and fact-based information of renewable energy.
  • REN21's activity is first recognized at the WFES conference at Abu Dhabi, where UN and other major countries participated.
  • I also attended the WFES 2012, and became a watcher of the activity.
  • From 2014 edition, REN21 report mentions, "The most notable was Japan, where investment in renewable energy (excluding research and development) increased by 80% relative to 2012 levels."
  • REN21は、国際的に再生可能エネルギーに関する客観的なデータを提供している機関である。
  • このREN21の活動は、2012年Abu DhabiでのWFES国際会議で始めて知り、その後、報告書を注目するようになった。
  • REN21の2014版では、日本が再生可能エネルギー分野2012年比べて80%増加した旨の記述がある。
Résumé
Remarks

>Top 0. Executive Summary:

  • TOP Five Countries:
  • Annual Investment:
  • Investment in renewable China US Japan UK Germany
    Geothermal NZ Turkey US Kenya Phillip.
    Hydropower China Turkey Brazil Vietnam India
    Solar PV China Japan US Germany UK
    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) US Spain UAE India China
    Wind China Germany UK India Canada
    Solar water heating China Turkey India Brazil Germany

    Biodiesel

    US Germany Brazil Argen. France
    Fuel ethanol US Brazil China Canada France
  • Features:
    • Solar power was again the leading sector during 2013, receiving 53% ($113.7B) of total new investment in renewable power.
    • Wind power followed with $80.1B.
    • Total investment in renewable energy, totalling $133.4B.
    • 1.3B people still do not have access to electricity.; 2.6B people rely on traditional biomass.
    • increase use of mini-grids for renewable energy-powered electrification.
  • Renewable Energy Power Generation Capacity 2012 - 2013: GW
  • Sustainable energy 2012 2013 Remarks
    Renewable power capacity (excl. Hydro) 480 560  
    Renewable power capacity (incl. Hydro) 1440 1560  
    Hydropower 960 1000 Modernization of facilities needed.
    Wing power capacity 283 318 Offshore wind have a record year, almost in EU.
    Solar PV capacity 100 139

    China spectacular growth.
    Module prices stabilized, while production costs continue to fall.

    Bio-power capacity 83 88 60% is traditional biomass.
    Geothermal capacity 11.5 12  
    CST capacity 2.5 3.4 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power.
    Larger plants are advantageous.
  • Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Final Energy Consumption, 2012:
    • globalrenewableshare
  • Average Annual Growth Rates of Renewable Energy Capacity: 2008 - 2013
    • growthofrenewableEnergy
  • Renewable Power Capacities in World, EU28, BRICS, and Top Six Countries, 2013:arenewableshare
    • Bio, Geothermal and hydropower have long been cost effective in areas where good resources are available.
    • Onshore wind and particularly solar PV have fallen sharply, while costs from coal and natural gas generation have increased due to higher capital costs and feedstock prices.
    • By the end of 2013, China, US, Brazil, Canada and Germany remained the top countries for total installed renewable electric capacity.
    • BRICS led 38%, EU had the most non-hydro installed capacity 42%.
  • Biomass Resources:
    • biomass resources
    • The output of biomass resources are; 1) food, 2) animal feeds, 3) chemical feedstock, 4) materials, and 5) energy.
    • Global annual primary biomass demand; 55.6 EJ, which are supplied by modern bio-energy and traditional biomass.
    • 5 GW of bio-power capacity was added for a total of 88 GW in operation in 2013.
    • Average capacity factor of over 50%.
    • US (15.8 GW) is the top producer of electricity from biomass, followed by Germany, China, and Brazil.
    • Ethanol, Biodiesel, and HVO Global Production; totalling 116.5 B liters.
    • Wood pellet global production in 2013, totalling 23.6 M tones.

0. 概要:

  • 再生可能エネルギー先進5ヶ国
    • 9項目中、中国5、米国3項目でトップ
    • 日本は2ヶ所に登場
      • 投資額3位
      • 太陽光2位

 

 

 

 

  • 各再生可能エネルギーの発電容量 2012/2013比較

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • 最終エネルギー消費の中の再生可能エネルギーシェア, 2012

 

 

 

 

  • 再生可能エネルギーの伸び:(2008-2013)

 

 

 

 

  • 再生可能エネルギー先進6ヶ国:
    1. 中国
    2. 米国
    3. ドイツ
    4. スペイン
    5. イタリー
    6. インド

 

 

 

 

 

  • バイオマス

>Top 1. Economics of Renewable Energy: (再生可能エネルギーの経済)

Type Characteristics Capital
(US$/kW)
Energy cost:
US¢/kWh
Hydropower
Grid-based
1 -18000+ MW
Reservoir, run-of-river
capacity factor 30-60%
>300MW; 1000-2250
20-300MW: 750-2500
<20MW: 750-4000
>20MW: 2-12
<20MW: 3-23
Hydropower
off-grid/rural
0.1 - 1000 kW
Run-of-river, hydrokinetic, diurnal storage
1175-6000 5-40
Solar PV
Rooftop
Peak capacity
3-5 kW (residential)
100 kW (commercial)
500 kW (industrial)
Capacity factor: 10-25% (fixed tilt)
Residential costs:
2200 (De): 3500-7000 (US): 4260 (Jp); 2150 (Cn); 3380 (Au); 2400-3000 (It)
Commercial costs:
3800 (US); 2900-3800 (Jp)
16-38 (Europe)
21-44 (OECD)
28-55 (non-OECD)
Solar PV
Ground mounted
utility-scale
Peak capacity; 2.5-250 MW
Capacity factor: 10-25% (fixed tilt)
Conversion efficiency: 10-30% (high end is CPV)
1200-1950 (typical global);
3800 (Jp); 2000 (US); 1710 (Cn); 1450 (De); 1510 (In)
14-34 (Europe)
12-38 (OECD)
9-40 (non-OECD)
CSR 50-250 MW (trough)
20-250 MW (tower)
10-100 MW (Fresnel)
Capacity factor;
20-40% (no storage)
35-75% (with storage)
Trough, no storage;
4000-7300 (OECD)
3100-4050 (non-OECD)
Trough, 6hr storage;
7100-9800
Tower: 5600 (US, no storage); 9000 (US, with storage)
Trough & Fresnel;
19-38 (no storage)
17-37 (6hr storage)
Tower:
12.5-16.4 (US)
Wind
Onshore
1.5-3.5 MW
Capacity factor: 25-40%
925-1470 (Cn/In)
1500-1950 (elsewhere)
4-16 (OECD)
4-16 (non-OECD)
Wind
Offshore
1.5-7.5 MW
Capacity factor: 35-45%
4500-5500 15-23
Wind
Small-scale
<100 kW 6040 (US); 1900 (Cn) 15-20 (US)
Bio Power
solid biomass
1-200 MW
Conversion efficiency: 25-35%
Capacity factor: 50-90%
800-4500
Co-fire: 200-800
4-20
Co-fire: 4-12
Bio Power
gasification
1-40 MW
Conversion efficiency: 30-40%
Capacity factor: 40-80%
2050-5500 6-24
Bio Power
anaerobic digestion
1-20 MW
Conversion efficiency: 25-40%
Capacity factor: 50-90%
Biogas: 500-6500
Landfill gas: 1900-2200
Biogas: 6-19
Landfill gas: 4-6.5
Geothermal Power 1-100 MW
Capacity factor: 60-90%
Condensing flash: 1900-3800
Binary: 2250-5500
Condensing flash: 5-13
Binary: 7-14
Ocean Power
Tidal range
1-250 MW
Capacity factor: 23-29%
5290-5870 21-28

>Top 2. Wind Power Energy:

  • Wind Power Global World Capacity, 2000-2013:
  • windpowerglobalcapa
  • Wind Power Capacity & Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2013
  • windenergycapatop10
    • 71 countries have more than 10 MW.
    • 24 countries have more than 1 GW installed.
  • Market Shares of Top 10 Wind Turbine manufacturers, 2013:
  • windpowerturbinemakers
  • Market Trend:
    • Capital costs of wind power have declined, through technological advance including taller towers, longer blades, and smaller generators in low wind speed areas have increase capacity factors.
    • These developments improved its cost competitiveness relative to fossil fuels.
    • Onshore wind-generated power is now cost competitive on a per kWh basis with new coal or gas-fired plants, even without compensatory support schemes.
    • European turbine makers experienced a decline in market share within China, where domestic suppliers over 93% in 2013.
    • Grid-related challenges are increasing and range from lack of transmission infrastructure, to delays in grid connection, to rerouting of electricity through neighboring countries.

2. 風力エネルギー:

  • 世界の風力発電容量 (2000-2013): GW

 

 

  • 風力エネルギー先進10ヶ国
    1. 中国
    2. 米国
    3. ドイツ
    4. スペイン
    5. インド
    6. 英国
    7. イタリー
    8. フランス
    9. カナダ
    10. デンマーク
    • 日本はどうした?!

 

 

 

  • 風力タービンエンジンメーカー;上位10社
    1. Vestas (デンマーク)
    2. Goldwind (中国)
    3. Enercon (ドイツ)
    4. Siemens (ドイツ)
    5. GE Wind (米国)
    6. Gamesa (スペイン)
    7. Suzion Group (インド)
    8. United Power (中国)
    9. Mingyang (中国)
    10. Nordex (ドイツ)
    • 日本メーカはどうした?!

>Top 3. Solar PV (Photovoltaic) Energy:

  • Solar PV Total Global Capacity, 2004-2013:
  • solarPVglobalcapacity
  • Solar PV Capacity & Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2013:
  • SolarPVcapacityTop10
  • Solar PV Global Capacity Additions & Annual Investment, 2004-2013:
  • solarPVcapacityinvestment
  • Market trend:
    • Global sola PV market had a record year, installing more capacity than any other renewable technology.
    • More than 39 GW was added, bring total capacity to 139 GW.
    • Major shift geographically as China, Japan, and US became top three installers.
    • China's spectacular growth offset Europe's significant market decline.
    • Much of China's capacity is concentrated in sunny western provinces far from load centers and consists of very large-scale projects.
    • Japan saw a ruch to install capacity in response to its FIT, adding 6.9 GW in 2013 for a total of 13.6 GW.
    • Market cosolidation among manufactureres continued in 2013 , with M&A activity reaching reacord levels mid-year, and bankruptcies and closure continuing.

3. 太陽光発電 (PV)エネルギー::

  • 太陽光発電(PV)容量 2004-2013
    • 139 GW/2013

 

 

  • 太陽光発電(PV)上位10ヶ国 2013:
    1. ドイツ
    2. 中国
    3. イタリー
    4. 日本
    5. 米国
    6. スペイン
    7. フランス
    8. 英国
    9. 豪州
    10. ベルギー
    • 日本はFITの効果大で4位

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • 太陽光発電(PV)への投資推移 2004-2013

>Top
4. Solar Water Heating:

  • Solar Water Heating Collectors Global Capacity, 2000-2013:
  • solarwaterheatingglobalcapa

4. 太陽熱給湯:

  • 太陽熱給湯容量 2000-2013:

>Top
5. Hydropower:

  • Hydropower Capacity & Additions, Top Six Countries, 2013:
  • hydropowercapacity2013
    • Global Hydropower capacity reacheds 1,000 GW:
    • despite a significant jump in new capacity in 2013, the intake of new orders for some major companies declined relative to 2012.

5. 水力発電:

  • 水力発電容量上位6ヶ国 2013

 

>Top 6. Jobs in Renewable Energy:

  • Jobs in Renewable Energy Worldwide, by Industry: K jobs 2013-2013; Data source IRENA
  World China Brazil US India Bangla. Germany Spain Oth. EU
Solar PV 2273 1580*     112 100 56 11 153
Biofuels 1453 24 820* 236* 35   26 3 82
Wind Power 834 356 32 51 48 0.1 138 24 166
Biomass* 782 240   152 58   52 44 210
Solar Heat 503 350 30*   41   11 1 31
Biogas 264 90     85 9.2 49 0.5 19
Geothermal 184     35     17 1.4 82
Hydropower
(small)*
156   12 8 12 4.7 13 1.5 18
CSP 43     143*     1 28 0
Total 6492 2640 894 625 391 114 371 114 760
  • Data: principally for 2012-2013, with dates varying by country and technology. Some data for India and China are older. Totals may not add up due to rounding.
  • Biomass: Traditional biomass is not included.
  • Hydropower: Employment information for large-scale hydropower is incomplete; focusses on small hydro (<10MW)
  • Solar PV: installation jobs have expanded massively.
  • Biofuels (Brazil): 331K jobs in sugar cane, 208K in ethanol processing, 200K indirect jobs in equipment manufacturing, and 82K in biodiesel.
  • Biofuels (US): includes 134K jobs for ethanol and 62K jobs for biodiesel.
  • Solar Heat: equipment manufacturing, installation jobs not included.
  • CSP: All solar technologies combined, with solar PV close to 100K.

6. 再生可能エネルギー関連雇用:

  • 再生可能エネルギーによる
    雇用機会
    • 世界で650万人の雇用に貢献
    • その内40%は中国
    • 建設時の波及効果はさらに大
Comment
  • Latest statistics of Energy Industries had not been clearly opened; but REN21 clarified the data of Renewable Energy as much as possible.
  • Reliable data would contribute affirmative impact of promoting Renewable Energy.
  • エネルギー業界の最新の統計データはなかなか明示されてこなかったが、REN21は再生可能エネルギーのデータを極力明示している。
  • 信頼できるデータは再生可能エネルギーの推進に貢献することになろう。

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