>Top 13. Lucifer's legacy:
- Issac Newton (1643- 1727):
- showed that weight is equivalent to mass, and thereby developed his universal law of gravity;
- Albert Einstein (1979- 1955):
- showed that mass is equivalent to energy (E=mc^2)
- neither of them knew what mass actually is.
- Peter Higgs (1929- )' theory explains the origin of mass;
- Mass is the spoiler of the symmetry of the Creation and the source of all structure, pattern, and asymmetries since.
- The Standard Model:
- Electron is an essential piece of all atoms, yet nature has made two redundant copies (muon and tau) distinguished only by their masses.
- There are also three varieties of neutrino, making a total of six particles in the electron and neutrino family (leptons)
- There are six varieties of quark; three with positive electrical charge (up charm, and top) and three with negative (down, strange, and bottom)
- Up quark is identical to the charmed quark (weights more than a hydrogen atom); the top quark weighs as much as a gold atom.
- The quantum bundle of electromagnetic radiation, the photon, has no mass and lies at the speed of light, while analogous bundles of weak radiation, W and Z, weigh more than iron atom.
- Neutron is slightly more massive than proton; due to down quark being slightly heavier than up quark. Had it changed them very slightly, so that up quark was heavier than down quark, then proton would have been heavier than neutron, and unstable.
- Neutron wold have been the stable end products of Creation.
- >Top Higgs bozon - a cocktail party of Conservative Party analogy:
- First, imagine a cocktail party attended by members; they are uniformly spread across the floor, each talking to their nearest neighbor.
- At this point, the former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, enter and proceeds to walk across the room. All the people in her vicinity are strongly attracted to her and gather around her momentarily until, as she passes, they detach and return to their even spacing.
- Once moving she is harder to stop, and once stopped she is hard to get started again as the clustering has to be reconfigured. Her inertia is greater; she has a greater mass than normal.
- The masses of the particles come as a result of them interacting with a field that permeate space (Higgs' field) It is this distortion, as the field clusters around the particle, that gives the particle a mass. Had the leader of an opposition party entered the room instead of Mrs. Thatcher, he might have been ignored and passed through unimpeded, like a photon.
- How massive is the Higgs' boson?; it must weigh over 100 GeV (100 time the mass of a proton)
- Supersymmetry (SUSY):
- The final link is known as supersymmetry and is a marriage of two symmetries.
- We have a clear symmetry among leptons and quarks; on the other we discerned a clear commonality among the carriers of the forces; leptons and quarks are related to the force carriers.
- The idea that all of thee entities were united in the original heat of the Big Band and became differentiate by their masses as the universe cooled.
- Electrons spin at half the rate of a photon (Spin 1/2); all leptons and also the quarks spin this way. (collective called fermions, after Enrico Fermi).
- Contrast this, photons, W and Z and gluons (collectively called a boson, after Indian physicist Satyendra Bose) have on spin (Spin 1)
- Higgs's boson have no spin at all, thus to have integer spin of zero (Spin 0)
- Originally the particles were united; as the universe cooled, the onset of mass hid this twinning such that quarks and leptons ended up lightweight, whereas their supersibling bosons (squarks and slptons) were left with masses (energies)
- Ferminons have spin 1/2 and are like cuckoos (where two in the same nest is one too many, whereas bosons are like penguins (the more the merrier)
- Laser beams are an example of this, where large number of photons (bosons) are in concert.
- The resistance of atoms to passing through one another and to coalescing into structureless forms is intimately du to the cuckoo nature of their basic fermion constituents;
- 'Theory of Everything' known as superstring theory:
- Einstein gave us model 4D picture where gravity is the result of curvature in the fabric of space-time.
- If the superstring theory is correct, then in addition to up-down, front-back, and sideway, there could be further directions 'within'. These higher dimensions have shrivelled up at the Big Bang, while the others have grown with the expanding universe.
- Gravity becomes strong, and ultimately unified with everything, at energies of 10^19 GeV - so-called Planck energy.
- Higg' boson is revealed at a mere 10^3 GeV.
- LHC will be able to see for the first time the ultimate foundations of reality; the long-sought unification of Einstein's theory of gravity and quantum theory.
- the universe is asymmetrical. Life is dominated by asymmetrical actions;whose truth may soon be resolved.
- LHC (Large Hadron Collider)：大型ハドロン衝突型加速器