- The world is an asymmetrical place full of asymmetrical beings.
- If the Creation had been perfect, and its symmetry had remained unblemished, nothing that we now know would ever have been.
- The symmetry of the Tuileries Gardens in Paris and its interruption by the disfigured devil are metaphors for our grander perceptions of the natural world.
- Symmetry is fascinating and appealing; there is no immediate evidence for it.
- Antimatter, the faithful opposite of matter, the symmetry so perfect that when any particle of matter meets it mirror antiparticle, mutual annihilation occurs; mutual suicide.
- Why and how?:
- Much of the sometimes confused debate about science versus religion fails to distinguish between the why and how varieties of question.
- Matter and antimatter:
- with the result that after the great annihilation, a small portion of the matter was left over.
- the multitudes o natural asymmetries that seem to have been necessary for human life to have emerged.
- Nature differentiated other forces:
- that can transmute the elements, producing the profound version of a material universe that we are privileged to have evolved in.
- lopsided elements:
- Biology, chemistry, and life are the result of electric currents - coursing through the nervous system, changing food into energy, building our bodies and the very fabric of the planet.
- It si these negative charges that communicate and drive the biochemical processes in living things while the positives, too heavy to be easily stirred, tend to stay at home and form the templates of solidity. this asymmetry in mass is crucial for the structure of materials.
- Mirror images:
- Most of these (amino acids, proteins and DNA) that differ from their mirror images.
- Life chooses one form while the mirror image is rejected.
- The body may happily digest a substance in one of the two mirror forms as food while excreting this mirror image unused, or worse, be poisoned by it.
- I wonder:
- whether the multitudes of asymmetries are the proof that we are the end products of chance.
2. Symmetry at large:
from North to South:
- the does cross the sky from right to left viewed in Southern hemisphere.
- What is symmetry?:
- If you view an object from a different perspective, such a rotating, tuning over, or looking at its mirror image, the it is symmetric.
- Shapes like disc like our own Milky Way, like ellipses, others with spiral arms like a Catherine wheel, and some are S-shaped like an elongated snake.
- With the aide of supercomputers, it is now possible to se how these shapes emerged.
- A galaxy will not start off with a perfect distribution of points equidistant from one another, and all with the same masses: small asymmetries are introduced into the initial distribution.: Even a small asymmetry can lead to large distortions as time elapse.
- If the galaxy has a number, N, of spiral arms, it looks the same when rotated through one-Nth of 360 degrees.
- Hidden symmetry:
- We readily accept the asymmetric as natural and the symmetric from as unnatural.
- Objects that from in the presence of a large gravitational force will feel a pull in the down-up axis that is absent in the latitude and longitude of the surface.
- The symmetric of 3D space that led naturally to spheres is destroyed, though a two-dimensional symmetry in latitude and longitude can remain.
- Symmetry, spin, and bath-tubs:
- Sphere is natural when there are no spurious influences at work.
- The globe is spinning around, once a day, the axis of rotation being the line connecting the poles which breaks the 3D symmetry. A centrifuge throws material outwards, flattening the equator and thinning the poles.
- Coriolis effect: by Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis (1792- 1843)
- Similar to the way of an ice-skater, spinning like a top.
- Moving from the equator northwards, conversion of angular momentum makes the object move faster than the surface of the earth. This north to east movement is a clockwise curve.
- Moving southwards has similar outcome, now is anticlockwise.
- Beyond the sphere:
- Life begins as a spherical single-cell embryo.
- As all solid matter, we are held together by electric and magnetic. These electric and magnetic forces can raise mountains and support the walls of canyons.
- The maximum deviation from a smooth surface for the earth is only 10km.
- Evolution explains some of the why: our head held high has obvious advance, while hard spine defending the rear and eyes peering forward can also be understood.
- However, the differentiation between left and right (heart to the left, stomach to the right) is still mystery.
3. Through the looking glass:
- Alice "Through The Looking Glass", Lewis Carroll (1832- 1898):
- The reflection of a reflection looks the same as the original.
- Human symmetry is only skin deep. In all vertebrates, the heart and stomach are on the left the liver and appendix on the right.
- Our right lungs are larger than our left, while left half of our brain is slightly larger than the right.
- Asymmetries in our brain and in nervous system is connected control much of our behavioral asymmetries.; the left side of the brain controls the right side of our body and vice versa.
- Our right and left eyes are also controlled you asymmetric brain such that we are all either left-eyed or right-eyed.
- Society discriminates against left-handedness (about 10%)
- It is easier for one's right hand to twist clockwise than anticlockwise.
- Screws: mass-produced screws are usually right-handed; move forwards when turned in clockwise direction.
- Mass-produced scissors are made for right-handers; when normally used, the two blades come together and cut.
- Michelangelo (1475- 1564):
- God's right forefinger that creates Adam in Michelangelo's famous painting.
- Dexterity, adroitness, and rectitude are all good things; by contrast, lefties are gauche. If left is sinister then right is right!
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519) was left-handed:
- the diagonal from top left to bottom right is the natural sweep of the left-handers
- Language and writing:
- By means of PET (positron emission tomography), there is a single center of activity in the left half of the brain, whereas for stutterers both halves of the brain are activated.
- In order to speak efficiently, presumably these two centers have to be coordinated, which is difficult across the corpus callosum.
- There is also a tendency for left-handers to be more likely to have a left-handed parent, sibling, or child than right-handers.
- 'Einstein to order'
- A preference for the left-hand side emerged in the days when riding horses was the norm.
- Your sword being on your left, you pull it out with you right hand and defend yourself from passers-by on your right.
- The horseless peasants walked facing the traffic on the right.
- The French revolution enforced right-hand travel, supposedly in sympathy with the peasants and contrary to the horse-riding establishment. Napoleon, who was left-handed, adopted this and spread right-hand travel around his empire.
- There was a strong tendency for the women to prefer the asymmetric originals over the symmetric artificial composites;
- The asymmetry in women' faces is not random and is such that makes prefer the right half over the left.
- The left half of the brain specialized in communication and the right is mor visually responsive.
- The left side to specialize in incongruity, while the right seeks order and beauty.
- The faces of women have miraculously managed to make themselves more beautiful on the right than on the left.
- Animals and insects:
- There are many sample of symmetry and asymmetry among creatures.
- Antelopes and rams have a left-handed helix on their left horn and a right-handed one neatly balancing it on the right horn. (enantiomorphism)
- Crossbill finch with an asymmetric beak whose upper mandible points to the bird's right and the lower points to the left.
- Nature does not care which way the symmetry is broken as long as there is advange in it.
- Turbot and flat-fish: a symmetrical fish; flat, with two eyes on one side and none on the other.
- Lobsters have one little limb and one big one; the small one is for clutching and the large for tearing; left or rig ht is accidental.
- Mirror image:
- Mirrors interhange front and back: the axis pependicular to the mirror reverses.
- Starting from the wall on which the mirror hangs, the room comes out toward you and continues back beyond you. Viewed in the mirror, the room heads away from the real you towards your image and continued forwards beyond it.
- >Top Art amd artefacts:
- Appreciation of symmetry is profund and pervasive; it permeates art and architecture. Tol the medieaval mind, symmetry and God were synonymous.
- Once asymmetry shows up, one's immediate reaction is to wonder wht disturbed the 'natural' order. Th bases of the twin towers are symmetrical which suggests that something untoward happened during the building that interrupted the completion of the symmetrical pair.
4. Mirror molecules and the origins of life:
- In 1784 Antoine Lavoisier (1743- 1794), Father of Chemistry:
- Mirror images:
- Four different combinations for the corners of the tetrahedron.
- H and CH3, NH2 (amino-), and COOOH (-acid); which occur in two mirror forms with L (levo) and D (dexter); hence L- or D- amino acids.
- in place of the CH3, there will be some other group of C, H, N, O varying in composition and structure which is called side-chain.
- about 1/6 of our body weight consists of proteins (muscles, skin, and other tissues)
- in the animal kingdom there are less than 25 different amino acid of which we can make 10 ourselves, but the other we have to obtain from our diet.
- our DNA is right-handed.
- Louis Pasteur (1822- 1895): associated with pasteurization
- Protein and Words:
- 26 letters of the alphabet produce all the words in the dictionary. The additonal allwable sounds that could qualify as word (vowells are needed on average every 3-4 letters to make an utterable sound), we find about 10M pronounceable words with up to six component letters.
- There are billion s of varieties of protein that can exist, wach with its own unique properties.
- Our DNA is right-handed. (Adenine - Thymine pair, and Guanine - Cytosine pair).
- Discovery of left-handed amino acids:
- In 1969 Murchinson meteorite in Australia: contained extraordinary number of organic moelcules and amino acids within them were left-handed.
- it is plausible that left-handed organic molecules were the survivors of bombardment by intense polarized starlight at the dawn of the solar system.
5. Unearthly visions:
- 1895/11: Wilhelm Röntgen (1845- 1923); discovered X-rays
- Steam engine by James Watt (1736- 1819): the days of the Industrial Revolution.
- Engines, gears and levers, pistons and pulleys in motion were mechanic's applied, but the nature of matter, light, and electricity was a relative mystery.
- Michael Faraday (1791- 1867): a genius born too soon.
- Discovery of induction; changing magnetic filed gives rise to electric fields and vice versa.
- James Clerk Maxwell (1831- 1879): encoded the phenomenon mathematically in his famous equations.
- summarized that a changing electric or magnetic field would generate its complementary partner; inducing a pulsating electric field.
- Electric and magnetic fields were no longer regarded as two separate entities but became united; the concept of the electromagnetic field and waves were born.
- He found the speed at which the waves travel; be 300M meters/sec.
- Maxwell's insight implied that there must be other electromagnetic waves beyond the rainbow; infra-red rays and ultraviolet light.
- In 1885: Heinrich Hertz (1857- 1894):
- induced electric sparks and showed the they sent electromagnetic waves across space; without the need for material conductors - wireless; 'radio' waves are electromagnetic waves similar to light but in different part of the spectrum.
- the rainbow corresponds to millions of megahertz (MHz)
- X-rays are very high frequency electromagnetic radiation.
- Until Maxwell's time; the physical sciences had concentrated on mechanical interpretations; steam engines, Newton's laws of motion, and mechanization of the mills.
- Maxwell had begun a revolution: electricity flowed along wires as if it were a fluid.
- Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940):
- Cathode rays in a vacuum; produced X-rays.
- >Top From X-rays to DNA:
- X-ray eyes have enabled us to extend our vision to the realm of the atoms.
- Imagine a piano keyboard; in the case of sound you can hear a whole range of octaves, but light is only a single octave in the electromagnetic piano. the wavelight of blue light is half that of red.
- Beyond the blue horizon - we find ultra violet, X-rays, and gamma rays.
- Beyond the red, we have infra-red, microwaves, and radio waves.
- Bees and some insects can see into the ultraviolet for survival.
- The visions beyond the rainbow also reveal deep truths about atoms and more.
- A droplet of oil is released onto the surface of the water:
- we can compare the volume (3D) with the area (2D) to determine the extent of 1D missing: the area divided into the volume gives the height of the molecules, which is revealed to be be about 1/10o,000 of a millimeter.
- to see molecules or atoms need illuminations whose wavelengths are similar to or smaller than them.
- The wavelength of X-rays is larger than the size of individual atoms; the distance between adjacent planes in the regular matrix within crystals is similar to the X-ray wavelength and so X-rays begin to discern the relative positions of things within crystals.: X-ray crystallography
- A further 40 years: Genetic revolution, biotechnology:
- Complicated molecules such as DNA is the most famous application of X-ray crystallography.
- X-rays have revealed the mirror asymmetric profundity of the DNA helix.
6. 'Electrick virtue':
- Nature has buried its secret deep but has not entirely hidden them:
- Becquerel's grand father had been intrigued by phosphorescence and wondered why some metals and mineral glow in the dark (uranium compounds)
- Discovery of spontaneous 'radioactivity'
- Electron is the lightest particle with electric charge; it is stable and ubiquitous.
- Electron was the first material inhabitant of the universe in the Creation and if the universe expands forever, electrons will be among its last remnants when the lights go out.
- Electrick virtue:
- In 1898 William Gilbert; electrick virtue takes its name from the Greek word for amber 'Electron'.
- two kinds of electricity, which became known as 'vitreous' and 'resinous'.
- 150 yeas elapsed between Franklin's insight and Thomson's discovery, by which time the convention of positive and negative had become irrevocably established.
- 1889: William Crookes (1832- 1919):
- studied cathode rays and found that a magnet would deflect them; they consisted of negatively charged particles.
- French and British scientist; the rays consisted of electrically charged particles;
- German reported the rays were not deflected by electric forces; the rays travelled in straight lines.
- JJ Thomson and Peter Zeeman (Dutch spectroscopist): Thomson made his bold assertion that this same something has a real existence outside atoms; the objects carrying the current in cathode rays are electrically charged constituents of atoms.
- Constituents of atoms are al least 2000 times lighter than the smallest atom.
- Atoms consist of a compact center (nucleus) which is positively charged, surrounded remotely by the flighty electrons that are negatively charged.
- Electron> lectricus, deriving from amber as by rubbing, >L. lectrum, amber >G. lektron.
- Vitreous (glass) and Resinous (resin)
7. The heart of the matter:
- 1895: Ernest Rutherford (1871- 1937):
- Their first breatktrough: each radioactive product has a charactristic half-life:
- Isotopes physically different but chemicall y identical, from Greek or eaually placed (in the priodic table)
- atomic nucli are built from clusteres of two type of paricle - protons and neutrons.
- alpha ban beta radiation; beta rays consisted of electrons and strongly suspected that the alpha were postively charged helium atoms.
- Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934):
- 1898 she had isolated the previously unknown element; in was named 'Polonium'.
- Radioactivity: not a mere curiosity of uranium but a general natural phenomenon.
- died of aplastic anaemia by overexposure to radiation.
- 1897: JJ Thomson:
- asserted that atoms contain negatively charged electrons and that these are a common feature of all atomic elements.
- the atom is 99. 99999 99999 999% empty space.; a paaadox; solid matter to the touch is trasparent on the atomic scale.
- this lopsided asmmetic sturucte is the key to life
- 1899: Rutherford had first isolated the alpha particle.
- Discovery of Proton:
- Proton from the Greek for 'first':
- Rutherford knew that nucli of al atomic elements contained ositive chareg; the maount of charge increase by unit amounts as one moved from to the next in the priodic table.
- He had been doing the work leding to this discovery during WWI; in great demand by the British Admiralty, devising ways of detectin submariens.
- He realized; if he had achieved what he suspected, then this would be more important than the war. - prophetic indeed in view of what would ocur 25 years later.
- >Top Neutron:
- Neutron: having no electrical charge it is impervious to the electrical barrier surrounding atomic nuclei and can pass through and enter into the nucleus.
- Discrepancy between atomic number and atomic mass as being due to the number of neutrons; almost double and nearly triple for uranimu.
- Ernest Rutherford (1871- 1937) and James Chadwick (1891- 1974, then a student in 1911) became convinced that neutron must exit. The problem was how to prove it.
- Rutherford proposed the neutron, less than a year had passed since he had discoveed the proton.
- 1932: Chadwick placed a whole range of elements in the path of the mystery radiation to see what would hapen. The mysteri raidation ejected protons; each ase a similar number of protons were ejectd and, cruically, their energies ware larger thatn could be posible had the mystery radiation been gamma rays.
- Frederic Joliot (1900- 1958) and Irene Curie (1897- 1956) failed to realize the mystery radiation was not gamma rys but massive neutornl knowing only of gamma rays, they misinterpreted what they were seeing.
- Atomic nucleus:
- Isotopes : Atoms can have differnt numbers of neutrons in their nuclei (isotopes9
- The abunance of the isotopes is like a fingerprint that can identify the origin of the material
- It is the positively charged protons th grip the lectrons making atoms.
- It is electron that move from atom to atom, building up molecures and determining their shapes; have these shaped can form 'isomers' (mirror images)
- What has only recently been realized is that all of these asymmetric structures have probably emerged from an original stae of symmetry.
- The rich structures that are familiar today have emerge from a symmetry in the early m moments fo the universe (the Bing Bang)
8. A glimpse of symmetry:
- Gravitational force:
- this acts between all particles. Pulls matter together. binding force of the solar system and galaxies.
- Gravity rules once an object is larger than about 500 km in diameter; ensures that large objects are spherical; small objects are not.
- Electromagnetic forces:
- Unlike charges attract. The cloud of negatively charged electrons is held around a positively charged nucleus. Binding force of atoms.
- some 10^40 times more powerful than gravitational attraction.
- Strong force:
- The nucleus of an atom contains protons. Like charges repel by the electromagnetic force. But the nucleus doesn't blow apart because the strong force attract protons and neutrons and binds the nucleus.
- This is now believed to be a remnant of a more powerful color force acting on quarks inside the protons and neutrons. (QCD=Quantum ChromoDynamics)
- Weak force:
- This cause radioactive decay of some nuclei. A neutron breaks up, emits an electron and become a proton. When operating in this way this force is thousands times weaker than the strong nuclear force. At high energies it is not so weak and begins to act in a similar way to the electromagnetic force. At very high frequencies the electromagnetic and weak forces appear to be intimately related.
- Inside the Sun:
- Above a few thousand degrees, as in the Sun, the violence is enough to knock all of the electrons completely out of their atoms; their individual constituent particles flow independently as two elastically charged gases (Plasm):
- Life needs some warmth to encourage an efficient metabolism, growth, and replication of molecular DNA, but not too much as in the stars.
- As protons collide and fuse together, aided by the weak interaction that converts protons into neutrons (emitting the ghostly neutrinos as one of by-products)
- The Sun is burning up protons at the rate 600M tons each second, creating helium; 4B tons of matter are converted into energy which is released as sunlight.
- >Top Elementary particles:
- Newton unified apples and planets with gravity
- Maxwell had unified electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism.
- 1979: Sheldon Glashow (1932- ), Steven Weinberg (1933- ), Abus Salam (1926-96); unifying electromagnetic and weak forces into electroweak force.
- CERN experiments shows W and Z bozons like a photon weighted around 90 times heavier than a hydrogen atom.
- Huge mass of W and Z bozons in contrast to the massless photon is what breaks the symmetry of the electroweak force.
- Why W and Z bozons are so massive, whereas the photon has no mass, is one of the frontier questions.
- Symmetry between electromagnetic and weak forces at low temperatures, in contrast to their symmetry a high temperature, appears to arise for the strong nuclear force too.
- Unification of the strong force with the electroweak at even higher energies is not yet demonstrated; thee forces could be all united at the extreme temperatures at the Big Bang.
- Supersymmetry: expected to be revealed at CERN's new accelerator (LHC, Large Hadron Collider); capable of looking to within 10^-12 seconds of the Creation to reveal the first glimpses of supersymmetry, and all symmetry was lost as the universe cooled.
- 強い相互作用：量子色力学; 10^40 in 10^-15 m
- 弱い相互作用：10^15 in 10^-18 m
9. Lost symmetry:
- Pierre Curie's Principle;
- If some phenomenon give rise to some particular effect, then the symmetries of the phenomenon will appear in the effect that it generate.
- In modern scientific jargon one would say that the symmetry as become spontaneously broken or alternatively that the original symmetry has become hidden. (Hidden symmetry. or Lost symmetry)
- An empty can (of soft drinks) can support the weight of a human;
- Having balanced the weight atop the empty can, a small pressure on the side wall of the can will cause it suddenly to collapse.
- This is a metaphor for systems seeking states of lower energy and the symmetry changing as a result.
- The reality is that systems are never perfectly symmetrical. They may appear so at a gross scale but under a microscope imperfections will appear.
- A small random disturbance:
- will grow until the system finds a stable configuration.
- at absolute zero temperature where all molecules have come to a halt?
- If an atom is brought at rest, its precise location is inherently unknown.
- The consequence is that an atom at ret cannot also be at the precise spot atop the hill and so will begin to roll down the slope at random.
- A picture of a snowflake shows this beautiful six-fold symmetry.
- The initial point could have been anywhere around the circle but one the freezing start at one spot, then, all the positions of the other members of the sextet are determined.
- This snowflake is one visual example of the breaking of a continuous symmetry as water move from the liquid to the solid phase.
- >Top In 1960 Yoichiro Nambu (1921- ): Spontaneous symmetry breaking in subatomic physics.
- Initially the universe was hotter than any star is now.
- Successive moments arrived when nature underwent changes of phase and had to decide which way to break the symmetry, as at temperature where electromagnetic and weak force separate from hot unified force field. (Mexican hat model, or Wine bottle model)
- Change of phase and change in symmetry go together, so we suspect that the universe must have undergone phase change.
10. Nature's sleight of hand:
- Cosmic asymmetry and origins of life:
- Gravitation breaks the symmetry, differentiating the ideal symmetrical uniform mix into discrete components.
- In the primeval atmosphere, where assorted mixtures of chemicals were sinking and floating in and out or contact, electric currents would have been common.
- The positive charges reside in the bulky, static, central nucleus, whereas negative counterparts are flighty, peripheral, lightweight electrons.
- The magnetic field of the earth attracted and repelled the wild electric currents in the prebiotic soup. These magnetic forces helped to weld molecules such as the amino acids.
- Orion nebula now: (1344 ly)
- where electromagnetic radiation that is polarized anticlockwise.
- If what is happening in Orion now is an example of what took place as our solar system was forming 5B years ago, it could mean that our DNA today is a fossil remnant of an intense polarized light that shone long ago.
- Mirror asymmetry:
- If the spin is thought of as like a screw, there is a hemisphere into which the screw would screw in and the other hemisphere would be that from which it unscrewed.
- Electron emitted:
- (a) Electrons are emitted upwards
- (b) Mirror image of (a);
- (c) Electron is emitted in the opposite direction at the laboratory; If everything is indeed mirror symmetric, we would expect the electrons to be emitted upwards; in reality the electrons were emitted downwards.
- (d) Antimatter image of (a) which does occur in Nature.
- Today we know that beta radioactivity emits not only an electron but also a ghostly neutrino. (so lightweight or massless); neutrino spins only as a left-hand screw so far as we know.
- We are asymmetric:
- Chemist thrive on asymmetry as our amino acids and DNA are asymmetric and so it is surprising that physicists were astonished when the sub-atomic world proved to be asymmetric.
- The electron spins as it travels and if the image refers to an electron spinning as a left-screw, the the positron would be spinning right-.
- the picture had a certain symmetry to it; real world left-handed and antiworld, right-handed.
- it is called that Charge conjugation symmetry, or C-symmetry, while the conventional mirror symmetry (or Parity) is denoted by P. Performing both operation is known as CP.
- If left-handed particles behave like right-handed antiparticles always, then nature would be CP symmetric.
- Eschar print: CP symmetric.
- (a) Escher print of black and white knights on horsebacks, together with its negative image.
- (b) View the (b) in a mirror and compare the original (a).
- We are mode of the asymmetric half of a perfect whole.
11. Antimatter matters:
- Antimatter has an aura of mystery;
- the promise of natural tweedledum to our tweedledee, where left is right, north is south, and time runs in reverse.
- Its most cenlebrated property is its pyrotechnic ability to destroy matter in a flash of light, converting the stuff that we are mde of into pure energy.
- Quantum theory describes thw world within the atom:
- Atoms are oftern visualized as miature solar systems, weht the poanetary electrons whirling around the nuclear sun.
- As soon as this picutre was first proposed, the elecrons should have spiralled into the nucleus, so rapidly in fact that atoms could neve have survived logng enough.
- In 1900; Quantum theory had been invented by Max Planck.
- Erviwn Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg sucessfully described the behavior of atoms and molecules.
- In the quantum world, common sense ceases to apply and particles appear less as things of substance and more like waves, with the disarming potential to be in more htan one place at a time.
- in 1928 Paul Dirac (1902- 1984): brought up bilingual of French and English.
- Dirac's equation opened a horizon to an entirely new world, one that does not exist around us here; it described the behavior of fermions and predicted the existen of antimatter.
- Dirac's spinning electron, which nature had reveald to us through subtle fine structires in the spectra of light emitted by atoms in magnetic fields, cannot exit alone; his equation turned otu to have two solutions; negartively charged lectron and its mirror-image vrsion; its electrical charge is positive known as 'postiron' and is an example of antimatter.
- I¥In 1932, the atntilectron was found in cosmic radiation, withh positive charge and identical mass to its electron sibling.
- >Top PET (ositoron Emissionn Tomography):
- A positiron is a stranger in our land and isn't long for this world. It finds itself surrounded by hordes of negatively charged electrons; withing a microsecond, mutually annihilate in a flash of light.
- O-15 (half-ife of only two minutes) need to be prpard near to the patinet. Thty can be made by bombarding suitable elements with beam of protons from an accelerator.
- The basic principle is that when the nucleus emits a positorn and the latter annihlates with a nearby electron, two gamm rays can emerge alsmost bak to back. This pair can be detected using eletronic circuitry and can locat the emitting nucleus very accurately.
- The symmetry of the Creation:
- LEP (Large Electron Positorn collider); the beams are accelerated by electrci forces and steerd by powerful magnets around the ciruclar tunner.
- Particle in LEP ravels at 99.9999% of the light speed.
- In LEP, where we set up the conditions of the original moment of the universe when matter and antimatter first appeard.
- The deep symmetry between matter and antimatter, embodied in Dirac's equation, and verified in decades of experiments, is in stark contract to the stucture of the known universe now which consists of matter to the exclusion of antimatter.
To Oppenheimer's interet in poetry, he said, "The aim of science is to make difficult things understandable in a simpler way; the aim of poetry is to state simple things in an incomprehensible way. The two are incompatible."
One colleague raised his hand and said "I don't understand the equation ont the top right-hand corner fot the balackboard. Dirac replied after a long silence, "That was not a question, it was a comment."
12. Back to the future:
- In 1964: Jatmes Cronin, etc.:
Kaon (K meson)
- WThoery implied that this would be impossible if CP symmetry were valid; CP is not an exact symmetry of nature.
- It means that in any beam of these kaons, there will eventually be an excess of matter over antimatter at the leve of 1 part in 300.
- The toal package of C (Charge) , P (Parity), and T (time) should preserve the patterns of he universe.
- Imagine liveing in a unverse like ours but where C, P, and T had all ben reversed. Whereas our univers is expanding from the Big Bang, CPT-reversed version would be hurtling towards a Big Crunch.
- It is the latter that revale the subtle CP and T asymmetries nd so Bottom particles (B Particle) should as well. But being so much heavier than their strange counterparts, B particles housl show a charactgeristic and large asmmetry between their matter and antimatter vreions.
13. Lucifer's legacy:
- Issac Newton (1643- 1727):
- showed that weight is equivalent to mass, and thereby developed his universal law of gravity;
- Albert Einstein (1979- 1955):
- showed that mass is equivalent to energy (E=mc^2)
- neither of them knew what mass actually is.
- Peter Higgs (1929- )' theory explains the origin of mass;
- Mass is the spoiler of the symmetry of the Creation and the source of all structure, pattern, and asymmetries since.
- The Standard Model:
- Electron is an essential piece of all atoms, yet nature has made two redundant copies (muon and tau) distinguished only by their masses.
- There are also three varieties of neutrino, making a total of six particles in the electron and neutrino family (leptons)
- There are six varieties of quark; three with positive electrical charge (up charm, and top) and three with negative (down, strange, and bottom)
- Up quark is identical to the charmed quark (weights more than a hydrogen atom); the top quark weighs as much as a gold atom.
- The quantum bundle of electromagnetic radiation, the photon, has no mass and lies at the speed of light, while analogous bundles of weak radiation, W and Z, weigh more than iron atom.
- Neutron is slightly more massive than proton; due to down quark being slightly heavier than up quark. Had it changed them very slightly, so that up quark was heavier than down quark, then proton would have been heavier than neutron, and unstable.
- Neutron wold have been the stable end products of Creation.
- >Top Higgs bozon - a cocktail party of Conservative Party analogy:
- First, imagine a cocktail party attended by members; they are uniformly spread across the floor, each talking to their nearest neighbor.
- At this point, the former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, enter and proceeds to walk across the room. All the people in her vicinity are strongly attracted to her and gather around her momentarily until, as she passes, they detach and return to their even spacing.
- Once moving she is harder to stop, and once stopped she is hard to get started again as the clustering has to be reconfigured. Her inertia is greater; she has a greater mass than normal.
- The masses of the particles come as a result of them interacting with a field that permeate space (Higgs' field) It is this distortion, as the field clusters around the particle, that gives the particle a mass. Had the leader of an opposition party entered the room instead of Mrs. Thatcher, he might have been ignored and passed through unimpeded, like a photon.
- How massive is the Higgs' boson?; it must weigh over 100 GeV (100 time the mass of a proton)
- Supersymmetry (SUSY):
- The final link is known as supersymmetry and is a marriage of two symmetries.
- We have a clear symmetry among leptons and quarks; on the other we discerned a clear commonality among the carriers of the forces; leptons and quarks are related to the force carriers.
- The idea that all of thee entities were united in the original heat of the Big Band and became differentiate by their masses as the universe cooled.
- Electrons spin at half the rate of a photon (Spin 1/2); all leptons and also the quarks spin this way. (collective called fermions, after Enrico Fermi).
- Contrast this, photons, W and Z and gluons (collectively called a boson, after Indian physicist Satyendra Bose) have on spin (Spin 1)
- Higgs's boson have no spin at all, thus to have integer spin of zero (Spin 0)
- Originally the particles were united; as the universe cooled, the onset of mass hid this twinning such that quarks and leptons ended up lightweight, whereas their supersibling bosons (squarks and slptons) were left with masses (energies)
- Ferminons have spin 1/2 and are like cuckoos (where two in the same nest is one too many, whereas bosons are like penguins (the more the merrier)
- Laser beams are an example of this, where large number of photons (bosons) are in concert.
- The resistance of atoms to passing through one another and to coalescing into structureless forms is intimately du to the cuckoo nature of their basic fermion constituents;
- 'Theory of Everything' known as superstring theory:
- Einstein gave us model 4D picture where gravity is the result of curvature in the fabric of space-time.
- If the superstring theory is correct, then in addition to up-down, front-back, and sideway, there could be further directions 'within'. These higher dimensions have shrivelled up at the Big Bang, while the others have grown with the expanding universe.
- Gravity becomes strong, and ultimately unified with everything, at energies of 10^19 GeV - so-called Planck energy.
- Higg' boson is revealed at a mere 10^3 GeV.
- LHC will be able to see for the first time the ultimate foundations of reality; the long-sought unification of Einstein's theory of gravity and quantum theory.
- the universe is asymmetrical. Life is dominated by asymmetrical actions;whose truth may soon be resolved.
- LHC (Large Hadron Collider)：大型ハドロン衝突型加速器