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Where time is born?

Why time flows from past to future?

Cat: SCI
Pub: 2006

Junichiro Hashimoto (橋本淳一郎)


Where time is born?


  1. Introduction:
  2. Prior history until the NP disaster :
  3. Time of Relativity:
  4. Time of Quantum Mechanics:
  5. Antiparticle which regresses time:
  6. Entropy which controls macroscopic world:
  7. Creation of Subjective Time:
  8. Creation of Time is creation of universe:
  9. Appendix:
  1. はじめに:
  2. なぜ今時間論なのか:
  3. 相対論的時間と時間性:
  4. 量子論における時間の非実在性:
  5. 時間を逆行する反粒子:
  6. マクロの世界を支配するエントロピー:
  7. 主観的時間の創造:
  8. 時間の創造は宇宙の創造;
  9. 付録:
John Mctaggart; Minkowski Space; Uncertainty Principle; Schrödinger's cat; Feynman Diagram; Entropy; Arrow of Time; Temporary intention; Life;
  • A very persuasive book written about time, just like scales fall from my eyes.
  • 目から鱗が落ちるような説得力のある時間論である。
Original resume

1. Why time is discussed now?::

  • Time has been researched in every possible way?
    • But there seems no clear explanation of it.
    • The reason would be detachment of philosophy and science since modern period.
    • Theories of time by philosophers mostly neglect the essence of time cleared by modern physics, particularly relativity theory and quantum mechanics, while modern scientists rarely discuss outside of the science.
  • Is theory of space obvious or trivial solution?
    • We seem space is strange as much as time.
    • Time should be considered as time-space.
  • John Mctaggart (1986-1925): British idealist; "Unreality of Time (1908)"
    • A-series Time: our ordinary notions of past, present, and future
    • B-series Time: positions are earlier or later
    • C-series Time: only arrangement or progression or sequence like; 1, 2, 3, ...
      • Both A-series and B-series Time is not realistic, but C-series may exist.
      • To distinguish the properties of being present, having been future and going to be past requires a conception of time divided into past, present and future; vicious circle or infinite regress

1. なぜ今時間論なのか:

  • 時間は研究し尽くされたか?


  • John Mactagart:時間は実在するか
    • A系列の時間:
    • B系列の時間:
    • C系列の時間:

2. Time of Relativity:

  • Time is real number, but space is imaginary number.
    • because we can only have the world of causality along Time axis.
  • Minkowski Space: (difference from Euclid Space)
    • Present is on the original point; with Space on X-axis and Time on Y-axis; with coordinates like N (light velocity, distance)
    • In ordinary life, nobody can recognize existence of non-causality area.
    • Law of Causality; present is caused by the past, and present can caust the future.
    • mytime_spaceEvent A is prenet for me, but is past for α, and is future for γ.
    • Even my present is not a point but has an extention in both near past and near future.
    • Extension of my present in both past and future: <Right figure>
  • Now has expanded area in both past and future: <figure>
    • Our sense to recongnize needs some time transmit in our brain.
    • Point or moment is a mathematical concept, which is different from uor sense of instantaneousness.

2. 相対的時間と時間性:

  • ミンコフスキー空間:ユークリッド空間に対して


my extendedn present


3. Time of Quantum Mechanics:

  • Negation of Mechanical Worldview:
    • Mechanical worldview was established in 18-19C by Decartes and Newton (which was criticized by Leipniz and Spinoza)
  • Uncertainty Principle: (Heisenberg Principle)
    • Fundamental limit of the physical property of a particle, such as location x and momentum p. <Figure>
    • Planck's constant: E=hν; the minimum energy to form an electromagnetic field (quantum).
      • λν=c, where frequnecy ν、wavelenght λ, and speed of light c
      • also Planck-Eistein relation for a photon is expressed as E=hc/λ
    • In the age of Aristotle, color, temperature, position, velocity were treated probably as same physical properties, which were real or unreal. (Zeno's paradoxes)
  • Quantum Mechanics show unreality of such physical quantities.
    • Concept of Time was born in human feeling or in our brain during the period of evolution, such as the concept of today, yesterday, tomorrow, sunshine, movement of stars, daily food cycle, new life and dead people (ancestor).
  • Macroscopic and microscopic Concept of Time:
    • 1 trillion of atoms: a par of DNA contains about 1-10 billion atoms; 10 ml of water is composed of 10^24 atoms.
    • Since 1967, the second was defined corresponding of transition of two hyper line levels of Ce-133. (9, 192, 631, 770 period of radiation)
  • Schrödinger's cat: (thought experiment)
    • Causality: a relation between a set of cause and result.
    • a cat might be alive or dead, depending on a random event.

3. 量子論における時間の非実在性:

  • 力学的世界観の否定
  • 不確定性原理
    • 相補的変数:位置 × 運動量
    • uncertinty principle
    • value of h: 6.626... x 10^-34 J-s
  • Physical quantity:
    • CH LV MET (Color, Hot, Location, Verocity, Mass, Energy, Time)
    • mesurement
  • マクロ的とミクロ的な時間概念
    • 時間は進化の中で生まれた
    • 1兆個の原子の集合が必要 
  • シュレジンガーの猫
    • 思考実験

  • Werner Heisenberg wrote, “elementary particles form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things and facts.”

4. Antiparticle which retrogresses time:

  • Feynman Diagram: <Figure>
    • 1. Particle-A and Particle-B approach and interact exchanging photon, then each particle leaves to different direction.
    • 2. (transpose Time and Space)
      • Particle-A and Antiparticle-A collide and annihilate, producing Photon, which create a pair of Particle-B and Antiparticle-B; or
      • Particle-A collides with Photon, and reverses to the past as Antiparticle-A, and then Photon collides with Antiparticle-B coming from future then reverse again to the future as Particle-B
      • Thus in microscopic world Time and Space can be transposed each other.
      • Time in microscopic world is Time C-Series as mentioned above.

4. 時間を逆行する反粒子:

  • ファインマン図形
    • <下左図>
    • <下右図>
    • ミクロの世界では時間と空間は置換可能
    • 反粒子は未来から過去へ移動



5. Entropy which control macroscopic world:

  • Entropy; commonly understood as a degree of disorder.
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics; Emptier in an isolated system never decreases.
    • Total Entropy is conserved in a reversible process and not conserved in an irreversible process.
    • Heat energy is irreversibly transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature, and the combined entropy of the system increases.
  • Arrow of Time:
    • Concept of Time seems quire arbitrary; probably time was recognized with start of agriculture.
    • Arbitrary response; we are controlled or affected by past and can respond to future; irrevocable flow of interference - making decision - response will be Time.
  • From order to disorder:
    • State of order is only one, but states of disorder are many; thus it shift from single to many.
  • Temporary intention:
    • Intention (which to slect from time to time) is necessary to maintain order against the law of second thermodynamics:
    • Life was born from simple self-reproduction to have a real life.
    • This process created A-series Time (Subjective time)
    • Positive world vs. negative (or reversal) world.


5. マクロの世界を支配するエントロピー:

  • エントロピー:無秩序の度合い
    • 熱力学第二法則
    • entropy definitho
  • 時間の矢:
    • 時間の概念は農業の開始と共に
  • 秩序から無秩序へ
    • 秩序は小数、無秩序は圧倒的多数


  • 刹那の意思

6. Creation of subjective time:

  • Life is a mechanism of order maintenance:
    • Life exist in macroscopic world composed of more than 1 trillion atoms.
    • Life is not a simple automatic machine, but has intention: action to eat, to escape, to breed (bacteria have no sex)
    • Disorder means death;
      • Natural selection appears from evolution process (pressure)
    • outside pressure to destroy our order is felt as an irrevocable past.
      • imagine retrogressive world, which is a world of anti-life, say, return of negative-positive relationship; a wordl of anti-life or anti-body:
    • concurrently intention has freedom to maintain order against outside pressure; this freedom becomes our future.
    • recongnize Arrow of Time.
  • Thus, subjective flow of time (i.e., A-series Time) is created
    • as well as having irrevocable past and freedom of changeable future.
  • Life capable to have memory:
    • can also have self-consciousness from birth to death.
    • why we know the past; because we remember our past record in our brain.
    • momentary intention starts chronological record; then we can bethink A-series, B-series, and C-series Times.
  • Universe has only C-series Time; but we created subjective time in the universe by our intention of survival.
    • Creation of time is creation of universe, where ourselves are participating.

6. 主観的時間の創造:

  • 生命は秩序維持機構
    • 少なくとも1兆個以上の原子
    • 生命は自動機械ではなく意思を持つ;食う・逃げる・増殖する
    • 無秩序は死を意味する:秩序維持の意思は進化の過程から誕生
    • 秩序の破壊は不可逆的な過去
    • 時間の矢を認識
  • 生命は記憶できる
    • 誕生から死までの自意識
    • 過去の記録を記憶することで過去が存在
    • 刹那の意思によってA系列/B系列/C系列の時間を想起
  • 宇宙にはC系列の時間のみ
    • 時間の創生は宇宙の創生

7. Creation of Time is creation of universe:

  • Intention of Life created past and future:
    • a picture of C-series Time written in Minkowski space.
    • this picture is non-synmetric, which differs according to the direction of scanning, or increase-decrease of entropy.
    • In entropy decreasing world, order is automatically created, where there is no evolutional pressure; neither intention, free will, nor consciouness.
    • In entropy increasing world, order ia sutomatically destroyed, where some kind of intention or effort to maintain order is needed.
    • Life feels outside pressure to destroy its order as irrevocable past, while life has an intention or freedom to resist such outside pressure to maintain its order; such freedom is its future itself.; thus A-serious Time (subjetive time) can be created.
  • Life who acquired memory recognized its birth and death:
    • Life know its past by the record of its series of intention or decision-making.
  • Thus life created Time which is called Universe.

7. 時間の創造は宇宙の創造:

  • 生命の意思が過去と未来を創生
    • C系列の時間はミンコフスキー空間が描かれた1枚の絵;エントロピーの増減によって非対称的
    • エントロピー減少世界では秩序は自動生成され、そこには進化の圧力も生命の意思もない。
    • エントロピー増大世界では秩序は自動崩壊するので、秩序維持のためには何か意思・努力が必要
    • 生命が秩序を崩壊させる外部圧力を不可逆的な過去と見なし、一方で外部圧力に抵抗する意思・自由を持ち、A系列の時間(主観的な時間)を創生
  • 記憶を獲得した生命は自身の誕生と死を認識
    • 生命は意思の記録によって過去を知る。
  • 生命は意思によって時間を創生(宇宙を創生)

8. Appendix:

  1. Minkowski Space:
    • In 4D (x-y-z-t) Euclid space, distance (ds) will be:
      ds^2= dt-2+dx^2+dy^2+dz^2
    • In Minkowski space, distance (ds) will be:
      ds^2= dt^2 -dx^2-dy^2-dz^2 ; space axis is imaginary number
    • World Line of light:
      ds^2=dt^2+ (idx)^2=dt^2-dx^2=0;
      ds^2-0; where gradient of World Line is 45º
      This means there is no distance (neither time nor space) from the viewpoint of light.
  2. Copenhagen interpretation: interpretation of quantum mechanics
    • Shrink of wave packet:
  3. Multiverse:
    • Expanding universe
  4. Time machine:
    • Causality issue

8. 付録:

  1. ミンコフスキー空間
  2. 波束の収束
  3. 多次元並行宇宙
  4. タイムマシン
  • Life is a process of remembering events occured in the past (from birth until death); which means as long as rembering continues I am still alive.
  • 生命(人生)は過去の出来事 (誕生から死までの)を記憶するプロセスである。つまり記憶が継続している限り、生きているということである。

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