1. Why time is discussed now?::
- Time has been researched in every possible way?
- But there seems no clear explanation of it.
- The reason would be detachment of philosophy and science since modern period.
- Theories of time by philosophers mostly neglect the essence of time cleared by modern physics, particularly relativity theory and quantum mechanics, while modern scientists rarely discuss outside of the science.
- Is theory of space obvious or trivial solution?
- We seem space is strange as much as time.
- Time should be considered as time-space.
- John Mctaggart (1986-1925): British idealist; "Unreality of Time (1908)"
- A-series Time: our ordinary notions of past, present, and future
- B-series Time: positions are earlier or later
- C-series Time: only arrangement or progression or sequence like; 1, 2, 3, ...
- Both A-series and B-series Time is not realistic, but C-series may exist.
- To distinguish the properties of being present, having been future and going to be past requires a conception of time divided into past, present and future; vicious circle or infinite regress
- John Mactagart：時間は実在するか
2. Time of Relativity:
- Time is real number, but space is imaginary number.
- because we can only have the world of causality along Time axis.
- Minkowski Space: (difference from Euclid Space)
- Present is on the original point; with Space on X-axis and Time on Y-axis; with coordinates like N (light velocity, distance)
- In ordinary life, nobody can recognize existence of non-causality area.
- Law of Causality; present is caused by the past, and present can caust the future.
- Event A is prenet for me, but is past for α, and is future for γ.
- Even my present is not a point but has an extention in both near past and near future.
- Extension of my present in both past and future: <Right figure>
- Now has expanded area in both past and future: <figure>
- Our sense to recongnize needs some time transmit in our brain.
- Point or moment is a mathematical concept, which is different from uor sense of instantaneousness.
3. Time of Quantum Mechanics:
- Negation of Mechanical Worldview:
- Mechanical worldview was established in 18-19C by Decartes and Newton (which was criticized by Leipniz and Spinoza)
- Uncertainty Principle: (Heisenberg Principle)
- Fundamental limit of the physical property of a particle, such as location x and momentum p. <Figure>
- Planck's constant: E=hν; the minimum energy to form an electromagnetic field (quantum).
- λν=c, where frequnecy ν、wavelenght λ, and speed of light c
- also Planck-Eistein relation for a photon is expressed as E=hc/λ
- In the age of Aristotle, color, temperature, position, velocity were treated probably as same physical properties, which were real or unreal. (Zeno's paradoxes)
- Quantum Mechanics show unreality of such physical quantities.
- Concept of Time was born in human feeling or in our brain during the period of evolution, such as the concept of today, yesterday, tomorrow, sunshine, movement of stars, daily food cycle, new life and dead people (ancestor).
- Macroscopic and microscopic Concept of Time:
- 1 trillion of atoms: a par of DNA contains about 1-10 billion atoms; 10 ml of water is composed of 10^24 atoms.
- Since 1967, the second was defined corresponding of transition of two hyper line levels of Ce-133. (9, 192, 631, 770 period of radiation)
- Schrödinger's cat: (thought experiment)
- Causality: a relation between a set of cause and result.
- a cat might be alive or dead, depending on a random event.
- 相補的変数：位置 × 運動量
- value of h: 6.626... x 10^-34 J-s
- Physical quantity:
- CH LV MET (Color, Hot, Location, Verocity, Mass, Energy, Time)
- Werner Heisenberg wrote, “elementary particles form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things and facts.”
4. Antiparticle which retrogresses time:
- Feynman Diagram: <Figure>
- 1. Particle-A and Particle-B approach and interact exchanging photon, then each particle leaves to different direction.
- 2. (transpose Time and Space)
- Particle-A and Antiparticle-A collide and annihilate, producing Photon, which create a pair of Particle-B and Antiparticle-B; or
- Particle-A collides with Photon, and reverses to the past as Antiparticle-A, and then Photon collides with Antiparticle-B coming from future then reverse again to the future as Particle-B
- Thus in microscopic world Time and Space can be transposed each other.
- Time in microscopic world is Time C-Series as mentioned above.
5. Entropy which control macroscopic world:
- Entropy; commonly understood as a degree of disorder.
- Second Law of Thermodynamics; Emptier in an isolated system never decreases.
- Total Entropy is conserved in a reversible process and not conserved in an irreversible process.
- Heat energy is irreversibly transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature, and the combined entropy of the system increases.
- Arrow of Time:
- Concept of Time seems quire arbitrary; probably time was recognized with start of agriculture.
- Arbitrary response; we are controlled or affected by past and can respond to future; irrevocable flow of interference - making decision - response will be Time.
- From order to disorder:
- State of order is only one, but states of disorder are many; thus it shift from single to many.
- Temporary intention:
- Intention (which to slect from time to time) is necessary to maintain order against the law of second thermodynamics:
- Life was born from simple self-reproduction to have a real life.
- This process created A-series Time (Subjective time)
- Positive world vs. negative (or reversal) world.
6. Creation of subjective time:
- Life is a mechanism of order maintenance:
- Life exist in macroscopic world composed of more than 1 trillion atoms.
- Life is not a simple automatic machine, but has intention: action to eat, to escape, to breed (bacteria have no sex)
- Disorder means death;
- Natural selection appears from evolution process (pressure)
- outside pressure to destroy our order is felt as an irrevocable past.
- imagine retrogressive world, which is a world of anti-life, say, return of negative-positive relationship; a wordl of anti-life or anti-body:
- concurrently intention has freedom to maintain order against outside pressure; this freedom becomes our future.
- recongnize Arrow of Time.
- Thus, subjective flow of time (i.e., A-series Time) is created
- as well as having irrevocable past and freedom of changeable future.
- Life capable to have memory:
- can also have self-consciousness from birth to death.
- why we know the past; because we remember our past record in our brain.
- momentary intention starts chronological record; then we can bethink A-series, B-series, and C-series Times.
- Universe has only C-series Time; but we created subjective time in the universe by our intention of survival.
- Creation of time is creation of universe, where ourselves are participating.
7. Creation of Time is creation of universe:
- Intention of Life created past and future:
- a picture of C-series Time written in Minkowski space.
- this picture is non-synmetric, which differs according to the direction of scanning, or increase-decrease of entropy.
- In entropy decreasing world, order is automatically created, where there is no evolutional pressure; neither intention, free will, nor consciouness.
- In entropy increasing world, order ia sutomatically destroyed, where some kind of intention or effort to maintain order is needed.
- Life feels outside pressure to destroy its order as irrevocable past, while life has an intention or freedom to resist such outside pressure to maintain its order; such freedom is its future itself.; thus A-serious Time (subjetive time) can be created.
- Life who acquired memory recognized its birth and death:
- Life know its past by the record of its series of intention or decision-making.
- Thus life created Time which is called Universe.
- Minkowski Space:
Copenhagen interpretation: interpretation of quantum mechanics
- In 4D (x-y-z-t) Euclid space, distance (ds) will be:
- In Minkowski space, distance (ds) will be:
ds^2= dt^2 -dx^2-dy^2-dz^2 ; space axis is imaginary number
- World Line of light:
ds^2-0; where gradient of World Line is 45º
This means there is no distance (neither time nor space) from the viewpoint of light.