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エネルギー
改革が
日本を救う

Energy Reform can relieve Japan

Sustainable Energy Revolution -
Change of Players, Technology, Policy and Regions


Cat: ENE
Pub: 2014
#: 1410b

FTM Forum, IUJ Glocom

UP 14610b
Titile

Energy Reform can relieve Japan

エネルギー改革が日本を救う

Index
Tag
  • FTM (Future Technology Management) Forum started at Glocom, IUJ just after Fukushima disaster in 2011.
  • Hiroshi Nakajima and Norio Murakami, both Prof. of Glocom are the leaders of this FTM Forum, which organizes private-government-academia joint workshop.
  • Kanzo Kobayashi is one of the secretariat group of the FTM.
  • The result of 3-year study of this FTM activity was reported at the symposium on Jun3, 2014, together with publish of this book.
  • We do hope this policy recommendation woud affect change of Japanese government and mindset of Japanese people.
  • Challenge of the second network revolution including energy is urged to rebirth Japan. (The first network revolution in Telecom occured in 1985, and afterwards the market became much bigger and active.)
  • 国際大学Glocomは、FTM Forumを2011年の福島事故を受けて発足した。
  • 中島洋、村上憲郎は何れも国際大学Glocom教授で、この産官学協働のFTM Forumのリーダである。
  • 3年間に亘るFTMの活動報告は、2014.6.2にシンポジウムとして行われ、同時に本書も出版された。
  • この政策提言が日本政府の政策および国民の意識に影響与えられれば幸いである。
  • エネルギー分野の第二次ネットワークは日本再生ために必須である。通信分野の第一次ネットワーク革命は1985年に尾壊れ場、市場はその後ずっと大きく活性化した。
Why
  • The energy network revolution should be urged worldwide, particularly in emerging nations, which can contribute 21C type of economic growth model after the revise of huge concentrated energy policy particularly depending on nuclear energy。
  • Historical poem say, "After the war defeated, still mountains and rivers remain." But "after the serious accident of nuclear plant, there will be no more habitable mountains and rivers."
  • エネルギーネットワーク革命は世界中、特に新興国で必須である。それは21世紀型の経済成長モデルとして寄与できるからである。巨大な集中型、特に原発に依存したエネルギー政策の見直し以降は重要である。
  • 古人の詩に曰く、「国破れて山河あり」だが「原発の深刻な事故あらば、人の棲める山河なし」となる。
Résumé
Remarks

>Top
1
Energy and Innovation:

  • What is 'Innovation': <L. innovare, from in- 'into' + novare 'make new'
    • This concept include introduce new idea, method, product, and demolish old ones.
    • It is important such innovation should contribute human happiness, particularly in Japan to create new jobs.
  • Dilemma of innovation:
    • Employment issue: is getting serious, due to transfer to offshore site.
      • 'Energy' is a field which can create job.
    • Younger generation is getting more introverted.
    • The end of 'New Liberalism':
      • Widening income gap between rich and poor
  • What is 'smart'?
    • Multifunction; including access to digital contents, both public news and SNS, etc.
    • Compatible with environment; like Smarter Planet including less carbon dioxide emission.
    • Contribution to anti-poverty issue
    • Sustainable energy oriented; including Demand Response
    • Safer and more secure society; Efficient services of Medical & Welfare using network.
    • Energy-saving; less depending electricity while more depending nature.
    • Through utilization of IT technology
    • Most appropriate; Endless expansion of being smarter
  • Like the advent of the Internet:
    • Nobody could imagine the advent of Facebook, iTune, YouTube, Dropbox, Digital money, or etc.
  • Smart Grid:
    • 2009/11 Smart Grid Initiative by Obama Administration
      • This initiative was neglected in Japan; Japan insisted on already having high-grade power grid almost without power cut accident.
    • Smart Meter will be the key device for establishing Smart Grid.
      • Japanese electric companies instinctively persisted in proprietary specification of the future Smart Grid in Japan.
  • Simultaneous commensurate power supply:
    • It is difficult to forecast exact demand of electricity; Smart Meter can measure semi-realtime consumption.
    • Each user or household can be smart to use electricity by the warning of Smart Meter.
  • Who owns the user's consumption data.
    • Patient record (Karte) belongs to the patient.
    • Purchase history record belongs to the buyer.
    • Ownership of the data of Smart Meter would be essential when deregulation of electricity realized..; also useful to DD (Demand Response9
  • IOT (Internet of Things)
    • Google recognized earlier the age of IOT; they proposed new type of Smart Meter.

 

1. エネルギーとイノベーション:

  • イノベーションとは
  • 新たなアイデア、方法、製品を生み出し、古いものを捨て去ること
  • イノベーションのジレンマ
    • 雇用はますます厳しくなる。
    • 若手はますます内向き
    • 新自由主義の終焉
  • エネルギーは雇用を創造できる分野
  • Smartの辞書的意味
    • clean, tidy, well dressed
    • quick-witted intteligence
    • be quick and brisk
    • computer-programmed
    • sharp stinging pain
    • (slim, slenderの意はない)
  • スマートとは何か
    • 多機能
    • 環境にやさしい
    • 貧困撲滅
    • 持続可能性
    • 安心安全
    • 省エネルギー
    • IT利活用
    • 最適:さらにスマートに
  • スマートグリッド
    • スマートメータの役割
  • 同時同量
    • 消費予測を把握
    • 消費者の電力使用データは誰のものか
    • DR
  • IOTの時代

>Top
2. Technology which supports innovation:

  • Only deregulation or system reform is not enough to make innovations.
    • Submerged or abandoned technology may revive by such reform
    • Power generation by Photovoltaic, Solar thermal, Wind turbine, Hydropower, Geothermal, Tidal power, and Tidal current.
    • Upgrade of power generation efficiency
    • Upgrade of power usage efficiency; DC power transmission, battery, micro-grid, control technology of supply & demand.
    • EMS (Energy Management System); HEMS, BEMS,
      • SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
    • Rectifier (AC to DC) ; Transformer (change of Hz of AC); Converter (AC/DC Converter or AC Adapter; DC/DC Converter); Inverter (DC to AC); advanced by IC technology.
    • Strife of T. Edison (DC) vs. Nikola Tesla (founder of Tesla Electric Light Co. )
  • Effective Electric Grid:
    • HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) is preferable to long transmission.
    • Superconductivity DC Transmission: -196ºC cooled by liquid nitrogen; superconductivity wire is 7 inch (18cm) in width, with single core for DC taped by Ag. (AC requires triple cores);
    • Gas Pipeline is 30 inch (77cm) in width; Superconductivity DC Transmission is 1/20 efficient in energy transmission compared with Gas Pipeline.
    • Long distance transmission by superconductivity wire brings revolution in energy strategy.
    • Case-1: "Cool Smartland Ishikari";
      • Ishikari Data Center connecting by superconductive cable; J/V of Sakura Internet, Chubu Univ., Sumitomo Electric Industries and Chiyoda Corp; starting from 0.5 km aiming to connect 200 km; thermal shrink is 1.5m per 500m cable.
  • DC supply; merit will be:
    • Transmission loss minimized; DC-UPS-Server
    • Easy storage; flexible to the simultaneous balancing of supply and demand
    • Reconsider "Closed Grid System"
  • ARPA-e: Energy version of DARPA promoted by DOE
    • concentrating development of PV panel and battery technology
  • Demand Response:
    • Peak cut; using battery
    • Peak shift; using HEMS
  • New battery:
    • Olivine type iron lithium phosphate positive electrode material (or Nanophosphate); several thousand times of charge & discharge; developed by SONY
      • Olivine structured; hexagonal closes packing
    • NAS Battery; 3 times more compact than conventional lead battery; developed by NGK Insulators
    • A123 Energy Solutions; NEC buyout the portion of battery for power electric, and built 'NEC Power Energy Solutions.'
  • Fusion of IT and other industries:
    • IT x Agriculture; IT x Medical; IT x Education; IT x Municipal government; IT x SMB
    • IT x Power Electric is a new frontier.
      • Peak cut technology
      • Back up power supply by private power generation
      • Electric market; adjusting function of battery storage and consumption
    • Okinawa OES (Open Energy System) Project; by OIST, SONY, and Okisokou; combination of PV power generation and battery, connecting by own DC transmission (DC Micro Grid, and power interchange).
  • 5 Keywords for Paradigm shift:
    • Sustainable energy, Bottom up; Distributed; Battery; DC transmission
  • Problems to be solved:
    • Cost efficiency
    • Stable operation
    • New construction of Micro Grid (like cell or LAN idea)
    • Cost and efficiency of Battery
    • Agreement of mutual cooperation (interchange)
  • Floating Wind Turbine:
    • 2013/111 Offshore of Fukushima; 2MW
    • Utilization of EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
  • Wind Turbine:
    • J/V of Vestas and MHI
    • Offshore resources development: EU is the front runner.
  • Technology a decade ahead:
    • Recent technology will be caught up immediately by China and Korea; both are stronger in cost competition.
  • Digital Grid: a possible Big Bang in electric grid; "Digitalize the electricity."
    • similar function of router in the Internet.
    • DC/AC conversion using Inverter technology; AC - DC - AC conversion; Packetizing of electricity like packet of telecommunication.
    • Routing of buy/sell of electricity; coloring of the electric source; Green colored electricity
    • Electric market is now $150B; future market might be $1T
    • Bottom up connection of Micro Grid; just like the Internet network.
      • This network would be flexible, redundant, and robust like Internet.
    • Open Network Concept:
      • Such Digital Grid would develop into INTERGRID; analogy of INTERNET
      • interconnection of different architecture of network; PSTN and Computer Network; loose and flexible connection of network, or best effort base
      • Micro Grid is connected various batteries to store excess electricity; settlement by networking offset.
  • Affluent energy sources in Japan:
    • Local and small scale of energy sources are affluent in Japan.
    • Problem at issue: Utilization rate; Cost down of materials; Innovation in batteries, transmission & distribution
  • Hydrogen Society:
    • ENEFIRM: domestic use fuel cell cogeneration system
    • FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle) 500 - 800km travel distance; subject to Hydrogen supply stations; suitable pressure of fuel cylinder (Bombe), 800 atm.
    • Hydrogen Energy Development in Fukuoka area
    • Delivery system of Hydrogen; MCH (MethylCycloHexane; C7H14) conversion; liquid in normal temperature & pressure having 1/500 volume of hydrogen gas.
      • C6H5CH3 + 3H2 = C6H11CH3 (Hydrogenation of Toluene into MCH)
    • Commercial Hydrogen Power Station in Kawasaki by Chiyoda Corp. and Kawasaki City.; 90MW consuming 630M cu.m.; Chiyoda Corp. developed dehydrogenation using platinum catalyst.
    • Cost Hydrogen need to compete with the present gasoline, say ¥60/L.
  • Floating Solar Raft: idea of Tokio Ohta in 1970s, electrolyzing sea water to produce hydrogen.

2. イノベーションを支える技術:

  • 制度改革だけではイノベーションは起こらない
    • 沈んでいた技術の復活
    • 太陽光、太陽熱、風力...
    • 発電効率
    • 電力利用効率、直流送電、蓄電池
    • EMS
    • コンバータ、インバータ、半導体技術
    • T. エジソン vs. N. ステラ
  • 効率の良い系統網
    • 高圧直流送電
    • ガスパイプライン
    • 送電ロス (交流5-6%、直流1000km; 3%)
    • 超伝導直流送電
      • Cool Smart Land 石狩プロジェクト
      • Solar TAO Project
  • 直流給電のメリット
    • 送電ロス
    • 蓄電が容易
    • 閉域の電力システム
  • ARPA-e:
    • 狙いは太陽光と蓄電技術

 

  • 新型電池
    • オリビン型リン酸鉄リチウム
    • NAS (Na - S) 電池

 

  • ITと他産業との連携

 

  • パラダイムシフト5策
    • 再生可能エネルギー
    • ボトムアップ
    • 分散
    • 蓄電
    • 直流送電

 

  • 浮体式洋上風力発電
    Wind Firm 実証事業;丸紅他
    • 開始:2011/9
    • Project: 200億円
    • 世界最大級 2MW→7MW風車
    • 発電22kV
    • 福島沖合23km;
      高さ133m→200m;
      羽長 80m→160m
    • チェーン輪 200kg, 800m; 浜中製鎖鉱業
    • 設備利用率: 陸上20%、洋上35%
    • 排他的経済水域は世界6位

 

  • デジタルグリッド (阿部力)

 

  • 日本は地域のマイクロエネルギーはむしろ豊富

 

  • 水素社会
    • エネファーム
    • FCV

 

  • Toluen
    toluen
  • MethylCycloHexane (MCH); a kind of cycloalkane

>Top
3. Is Japan an energy poor country?

  • Once Japan had been an energy rich country with many domestic coal mines and big dam for hydroelectricity.
    • US: Investment Tax Credit; which is the source of venture fund.
  • Japan could be energy-rich country, if it can develop cost-effective technologies.
  • Japan has been too much concentration to promote nuclear power until 2011.3.11.
  • Solar panel production; Japan won the top share in 1999; 4 companies out of the top five shred 48% of the world, which was Sharp, Kyocera, Sanyo, Mitsubishi Electric in 2005.
    • But after that European, and then Chinese makers overtook Japanese makers.
    • 3 stages of Solar panel business:
      • 1st: Japanese makers went in front.
      • 2nd: Chinese makers dominated world market.
      • 3rd: new phase of competition after 3.11 disaster. Risk and delay of new construction of nuclear power became obvious. Follow wind is blowing in sustainable energy.
      • METI aims 20% new energy share by 2030, particularly expecting increase of Wind power generation (more than 6%; from present 2.7GW to 10GW).
        • The bottleneck is transmission capacity between Hokkaido and Honshu, which needs $5B investment.
        • North of 40º latitude is more suitable for Wind power generation; Hokkaido si one of the best location.
        • Another motivation is firm commitment to increase sustainable energy
  • Geothermal power generation:
    • planning present 0.54GW to 1.5GW by 2030, which requires 10 more development projects than now. Hacchobaru Geothermal power station is the biggest in Japan (0.11GW) located in Oita Pref., Kyushu.
    • The bottleneck:
      • Limited number of development teams, who are busy in developing mining in overseas.
      • Until now, the development in domestic national parks was regulated.

3. 日本はエネルギー貧国か:

  • かつて日本は石炭、大型水力で資源大国だった。
  • もし高効率な技術開発できれば、日本は再度エネルギー大国に

 

  • 日本の再生可能エネルギー目標:2030年までに20%
    • 特に北緯40º以北の風力発電に期待
    • 但し、北本連系線の投資必要 ; 5,000億円
    • 太陽光パネルの市場攻防

 

  • 地熱発電:
    • 八丁原地熱発電0.11GW; 大分県
    • 地熱: 2030年までに1.5GW目標
    • 但し、開発チームが不足

>Top
4. What changes by the Electric Reform:

  • Electric market is the last regulated sanctuary.
    • Other regulated market like, national railway, tobacco & salt, telecommunication were deregulated in later years in 20C. The last deregulation occurred in postal services.
    • The electric industry was already operated by 'private' companies, which are regional monopoly companies and have no competition.
  • Gradual deregulation in Japanese electric industry:
    • 1995: deregulated in wholesale of electricity
    • 1999: deregulated in big consumers not less than 2MW.
    • 2004: deregulated not less than 50kW (shares 60% of total demand)
    • 2013: new electric system reform:
      • Phase-1: Wide Area Power Distribution Operating Organization (2015; principle clauses)
      • Phase-2: Over-all deregulation of retail market (2016; supplementary clauses)
      • Phase-3: Neutral organization of Power Transmission & Distribution; Deregulation of retail price (2018-2020; supplementary clauses)
  • PPS (Power Producer & Supplier):
    • ENNET (NTT, Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas)
    • Strict conditions was required to use Electric Power Companies's Grid; the Grid should be neutral to any power generation companies.
    • Nuclear energy is a very controversial issue, which looks like a kind of theological argument.
    • 'Comprehensive Cost Mechanism' has been applied in the 10 Japanese Power Electric Companies; this mechanism has no cost-consciousness and efficiency.
    • Could the nuclear power plants be operated considering any risk of natural disaster or attack of terrorism and war mode.
      • After 3.11 disaster, it became obvious that not only the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Containment Vessel (CV) of nuclear power plant, but also Spent Nuclear Fuel pool must be cooled for long term.
      • Such spent nuclear fuel has been regarded as an asset, but it will be a debt as long as it is used as a fuel. (MOX fuel)
    • Top of the electric companies has been the leaders of economic world as well as local communities; no critical opinions have reached them.
  • Lesson of Deregulation of Telecom (1985):
    • NTT Public Corp was divided into NTT-East and NTT-West to make competition between them. Fixed phone's competitor was regarded another fixe phone in the other area.
    • But actually, mobile phone became the real competitor of fixed phone.
  • Innovative technology would be difficult to evaluate its value even by specialists.
    • Similar destructive technologies might occur in the electric industry.
  • 'Frontier Revolution':
    • Mobile phone defuse quickly than fixed phone.
    • Micro grid and digital grid can diffuse in remote and isolated areas as Frontier Revolution.

4 電力システム改革で変わること:

  • 電力は最後の規制分野。
    • 鉄道、たばこ塩、通信は20C後半に自由化。
    • 郵政自由化がその後
    • 電力は、地域独占の私企業が運営
  • 日本の電力自由化の歴史:
    • 1995:卸売り自由化
    • 1999:2MW以上自由化
    • 2004:50kW以上自由化(60%)
    • 2013:3.11以降の今回の電力改革
      • 第一段階:広域系統運用機関 (2015)
      • 第二段階:小売全面自由化 (2016) 付則
      • 第三段階:送配電部門の法的分離、小売料金全面自由化;(2018-20) 付則
  • PPS (新電力事業会社)
    • エネット
    • 系統接続条件
    • 原発問題
    • 総括原価主義

 

  • 通信自由化の教訓
    • 固定電話vs 携帯電話
  • 画期的な技術革新
    • 専門家にも予測不能

 

  • 辺境革命
    • 携帯電話の普及
    • マイクログリッド、デジアルグリッドも辺境 (僻地、離島)

 

>Top
5. Japanese Feed In Tariff (
FIT):

  • 2012.7.1 : FIT started in Japan.
    • 774K projects, total power generation capacity amounts 30.3GW, of which 534K projects (69%) started operation totalling 7.0GW (29%) as of the end of 2013.
    • 813 Mega Solar Projects are included in the above.
    • PV, Wind, Small Hydroelectric, Biomass, Geothermal power generations are included.

  • <Chart-1> Applied FIT Projects (as of end 2013): Unit: GW
Power generation Existing Applied FIT Started operation (%)
PV (Domestic)

4.7

2.0 1.8 (89%)
PV (Industrial) 26.1 4. 7 (18%)
Wind 2.6 0.95 0.074 (8%)
Geothermal 0.5 0.003  
Biomass 2.3 0.71 0.12 (17%)
Small Hydro 9.6 0.24 0.005 (2%)
    • Geothermal plants need about 10 years until starting operation.
  • Argument against FIT:
    • Too many Mega Solar PV Project.
    • Too slow operation after applying FIT.
  • Counterargument by METI:
    • 95 application was PV, of which Mega Solar is the biggest, but it takes longer construction time.
    • Only PV can start operation within 3 years.
    • Neither land nor facility of PV secured projects were canceled FIT application.
  • FIT System gave the result worldwide, particularly in Germany in 2000s.
    • FIT is a national inducing policy into sustainable energy for power generation rather than depending too much on fossil energy.
    • Utility charge to HH due to FIT was around $1.2/mo in Germany (same with present Japan), then rose to $5/mo in 2009, now to $24/mo in 2014 which seems too much level.
  • Purchase Standard of FIT:
    • First started ¥42/kWh for 20 years purchased by Electric Power Co.
    • FIT reduced ¥38/kWh in FY2014, then ¥32 in FY 2015.
    • German 'Q Cells AG' started Solar panel production in 2001, once scored world top ranking, then became bankrupt in 2012 due to the shrink of FIT and completion with Chinese makers; now absorbed by Korean Hanwfa Sola.
      • The application to German FIT increased due to purchase of cheaper Chinese solar panels, which increase the Utility charge in Germany, together with other subsidy to a certain industry in Germany.
  • Challenge of PSS:
    • 2014.1: ENNET became the purveyor to the Imperial Household Agency in Japan.

5. 日本の固定価格買取制度:

  • 2021.7.1: FIT制度開始
    • 太陽光
      • 住宅用4.7GW
      • 産業用26.1GW
    • 風力3.6GW
    • 地熱3.2GW

 

  • <左表1> FITの現状(2013末)
    • FIT政策の現状

>Top
6. Energy Reform in various regions:

  • Sustainable energy development fits with 'local production for local consumption.'
  • Oita Prefecture, Kyushu:
    • A front runner of sustainable energy development with top self-support ratio 23.3%.
  • Geothermal energy:
    • Japanese biggest geothermal power generation of Hacchobara of Kyushu Electric.
    • Japanese potentiality of geothermal energy not lower than 53ºC:
      • Hokkaido 20.2MW; Toyama 2.4GW; Akita 1.1 GW; ,,, (7th) Oita 0.67GW
      • 2012: Environment Ministry eased restriction of Geothermal development in national park areas; which pushed to reconsider geothermal development projects.
  • Ripple effect of sustainable energy:
    • Industrial development, Regional development, and Tourism promotion.
  • Kind of sustainable power generation in Oita Prefecture:
    • Utilization industrial land, which was not used since Liehman Shock in 2008.
    • Geothermal power generation; total 150 MW; Steam vapor generation; Channel stream generation
    • Mega solar power generation; totaling 125 MW in the same location
      • Nikki 26.5MW
      • Mitsui Shipbuilding 17MW
      • Marubeni 81.5 MW
    • Independent solar battery, charging EV; 'Open-air consent' or 'Ecotourism'
  • Local PPS:
    • Odawara Electric (Hotoku Energy), Odawara City, Kanagawa Pref.; 2012
      • supported by local government and citizen (Local fund @¥100K)
      • Mega Solar and HH Roof Solar power generation
      • Independent energy source from Nuclear power generation.
    • Minna Electric in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo:
      • Solar power generation of not only roof of stand-alone house but veranda of flat
    • Enecoop, Sapporo City, Hokkaido; supported by COOP member.
      • Mega solar power generation; 1.25 MW and 0.75 MW;
      • Selling the power to Hokkaido Electric and ENNET of NTT group.
      • Bio gas to BDF.
      • Sales of BEMS and HEMS
      • Cooling know-how in the store; ice box or room temperature, or both?
  • Aiming Smart City; Yokohama City:
    • Promoting with major companies; Toshiba, Meidensha, Nissan Motors, Panasonic, Tokyo gas, Tokyo Electric, Accenture.
    • EMS; Community EMS, Home EMS, Mansion EMS, Building EMS, Factory EMS.
    • Battery SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)
    • Leaf to Home; use of car battery to home use
    • Kashiwanoha Smart City, Kashiwa City, Chiba Pref.

  • Kasepuhan 'Kingdom' in Indonesia:
    • Self-sufficiency economy; Never Sell Rice policy
    • IBEKA, Indonesia; NGO promoting micro hydro power generation

6. 地域のエネルギー改革:

  • 再生可能エネルギー
  • 地産地消

 

 

  • 大分県:再生可能エネルギー日本一

 

 

  • 地域新電力(PPS)
    • 小田原電力
    • みんな電力
    • エネコープ札幌

 

 

 

  • 横浜市の事例

 

 

  • 柏の葉Smart City:
    • 自産自消
    • 地域内エネルギーの自立

>Top
7. HRD who sustains our future:

  • Sustainable HRD is needed; filling up the gap of less children & aging Japanese society.
  • Decline of IT industry symbolized decline of total Japanese industries.
    • Diversified team having various specialities.
  • Key word:
    • Understand Asia; Global-oriented; Challenge stereotype concept
    • World population; now 7B; increase 9.3 - 9.4 by 2050; 75% of increase occur in Asia.
    • Energy business field is in Asia!
  • Change of rules:
    • Gray color can been white.
    • Liquidity of HR matters.
  • Is IT industry and Energy industry are similar or different?

7. 未来を担う人材開発:

  • 持続可能な人材育成
  • IT産業の衰退は産業全体の衰退
  • 人材育成キーワード
    • アジア
    • グローバル
    • 既存概念への挑戦
  • IT業界とエネルギー業界の共通点と相違点
Comment
  • Energy industry is a kind of network business, which can learn lots of the Internet related business.
  • Energy is also vital for life like food, atmosphere or water. It is not only industrial product but also essential factor of life cycle.
  • What about the oxygen is a pay product of a monopoly intentionally supply from the central system like SF on the Mars?
  • エネルギーはネットワークビジネスの一種であり、インターネットから多くを学ぶことができる
  • エネルギーはまた食料や空気や水のように生命にとって必須である。
  • 火星のSFのように酸素が独占企業から集中システムから有料で提供されるとしたら?

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