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Vietnam eGovernment and OSS
status report in 2005

Cat: ICT
Pub: 2006

The photo was taken at eGov Forum at Danang, Dec. 2005



Vietnam eGovernment and OSS
status report in 2005


A report through five times visit to Vietnam 5回のベトナム訪問による報告
Kanzo Kobayashi


  1. Prologue:
  2. Overview of eGov. Project:
  3. Outline of OSS eGov Master Plan:
  4. OSS Sub-projects of government:
  5. OSS related private sector:
  6. Status-quo of eGov Systems of Vietnam:
  7. OSS eGov Pilot Project:
  8. OSS related IT industry:
  9. Consideration (1) OSS skill level:
  10. Consideration (2) Effectiveness of eGov Pilot Project:
  11. SWOT of Vietnam:
  1. プロローグ:
  2. eGovプロジェクト概観:
  3. 2OSS eGovマスタープラン:
  4. 各省庁のサブプロジェクト:
  5. OSS関連民間企業:
  6. ベトナムeGovシステムの現状:
  7. OSS eGovパイロットプロジェクト:
  8. OSS関連IT産業:
  9. 考察1 - OSSスキルレベル:
  10. 考察2 - eGovパイロットプロジェクトの有効性
  11. ベトナムのSWOT :
  • I have visited Vietnam five times in 2005 to make survey and report about the latest status of eGovernment and OSS projects in Vietnam.
  • The original report was submitted to CICC (Center of the International Cooperation for Computerization), an affiliate organization of METI. Here is the essence and topics related the report.
  • Vietnam is now changing just like China. I'd like to mention the drastically changing situation of Vietnam.
  • As a baby-boomer generation, I have watched the country of Vietnam since a university student, because the Vietnam war was one of the key concern of then younger generation.
  • 2005年にベトナムを5回訪問して、ベトナムにおける電子政府とOSSプロジェクトの現地調査を行った。
  • 原報告は(財)国際情報化協力センター(CICC)に提出した。これはその報告のエッセンスとトピックスである。
  • ベトナムは現在、中国のように変化している。ベトナムの劇的に変化しつつある状況をぜひ報告したい。
  • 団塊世代の一人として、ベトナムという国は大学生の頃から注目してきた。ベトナム戦争は当時の若い世代にとって大きな関心事の一つだったからである。

>Top 0. Prologue:

  • Asian countries aims industrial development and dissolution of digital divide through promoting computerization by government initiatives.
  • We have surveyed the status-quo of eGovernment and utilization of OSS in Vietnam from Aug through Dec. 2005.

0. プロローグ:

  • アジアではIT化、特にOSSの活用による産業育成、デジタルデバイド解消への政府主導による本格的栗組みが開始
  • 中進国のIT化の有望国としてベトナムにおけるeGovおよびOSSの現状を調査報告(調査期間は2005年8~12月)

>Top 1. Overview of eGov. Project:

  1. IT Master Plan-I (by MPT): mostly installed telecom infrastructure.
  2. 112 Project (by 112 Committee): promoted eGov Pilot Project by cross-ministry organization.
  3. OSS Master Plan (by MOST): promoted by MOST, aiming to install OSS Resource Center.
  4. IT Master Plan-II (by MPT): promoted by MPT, aiming to install full-scale eGov Projects.

1. eGovプロジェクト概観:

  1. IT Master Plan-I (MPT):
  2. 112 Project (各省横断組織:112 Committee) eGovパイロットプロジェクト推進
  3. OSS Master Plan (MOST):
    OSS リソースセンター構築
  4. IT Master Plan-II (MPT):
    本格的eGov Projectへ向けての継続


>Top 2. OSS eGov Master Plan:

  • Legal basis:
    • Decree 235/QD-TTg (2004.3) eGov Plan between 2004-08
  • Object:
    1. Promotion of OSS utilization and development of IT industry.
    2. Human resources development (HRD), particularly OSS experts.
    3. Dissolution of digital divide.
    4. Reduction of total cost of ownership (TCO)
    5. Countermeasure against software piracy, and promotion of admission to WTO.
  • Propulsion organization:
    • MOST is in charge of OSS promotion.
    • "OSS Project Operation Committee" within MOST, aiming:
      1. to promote OSS utilization both in public and private.
      2. to install eGov Pilot by OSS
      3. to finalize the plan and the budget, getting final approval from MP after consulting with MPT.
      4. to control progress of sub-projects by the ministries concerned.

2. OSS eGovマスタープラン:

  • 法的根拠:
  • 目的:
    1. OSS活用促進、IT産業振興
    2. OSS専門家育成
    3. デジタルデバイド解消
    4. TCO削減。
    5. 著作権問題、WTO加盟促進
  • 推進体制:
    • 「OSSプロジェクト運営委員会」
    1. 官民でのOSS利用促進
    2. eGovパイロットをOSSで構築
    3. 計画・予算はMPTと協議の上、首相承認
    4. 各省庁のサブプロジェクトの進捗管理

>Top 3. OSS Sub-projects of government:

  • 1. Ministry of Posts &Telematics (MPT):
    • Policy making of OSS utilization and development
  • 2. Ministry of Science & Technology (MOST):
    • OSS Resource Center, and high level education
  • 3. Ministry of Education & Training (MOET):
    • OSS HRD at university, college.
  • 4. Ministry of Labor, Invalids, & Social Affairs (MOLISA):
    • OSS HRD at vocational schools.
  • 5. Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA)
    • OSS HRD for central and local government staff
  • 6. Ministry of Defense (MOD):
    • Development of security enhanced OSS used at Defense.
  • 7. Ministry of Public Security (MOPS):
    • Development of information security applications.
  • 8. Hochimin People's Committee:
    • Government portal site for staff, citizen, and SMB's.
  • 9. Hanoi People's Committee:
    • Government portal site for staff, citizen, and SMB's.
  • Comment:
    As of Sept. 2005, the sub-projects of MPT and MOHA are still in the planning stage, and that of Hanoi Peoples's Committee is to be delayed one more year, while others are in the process of installation getting budgetary approval of MOF.

3. 各省庁のサブプロジェクト:

  • 1. 郵電省(MPT):OSS利用と開発に関する政策立案
  • 2. 科学技術省(MOST):OSSリソースセンター、ハイレベル教育
  • 3. 教育訓練省(MOET):大学・専門学校におけるOSS人材育成
  • 4. 労働傷病兵社会問題省(MOLISA): 職業訓練校におけるOSS人材育成
  • 5. 内務省(MOHA):中央・地方政府職員向けOSS運用教育
  • 6. 防衛省(MOD): 防衛分野におけるセキュリティ強化OSSの開発
  • 7. 公安省(MOPS):高度な情報セキュリティAP (セキュリティ監視等)の開発
  • 8. ホーチミン市人民委員会:
  • 9. ハノイ市人民委員会:
  • 2005/9現在では、MPTとMOHAのサブプロジェクトはまだ計画段階、ハノイ人民委員会のサブプロジェクトは1年遅れの見込み、その他のサブプロジェクトはMOFの予算承認も得て進捗中。

>Top 4. OSS related private sector:

  • There are five major OSS related private companies in Hanoi:
    1. CMC Group:
      • Staff: 600
      • RedHat Vietnam version
    2. VietSoftware:
      • Staff: 150
      • Development of government portal sites
    3. Vietkey Group:
      • Staff: 70
      • Vietkey Linux (the first Vietnamized Linux)
    4. NCS:
      • Staff: 82
      • e-Learning system by OSS
    5. Nhat Vinh:
      • Staff: 18
      • Contents management tool called WebCMS by OSS
      • System management tool called VOSA

4. OSS関連民間企業:

  • ハノイ市内における代表的なOSS企業は以下5
    1. CMC Group:
      • 従業員600名
      • CMCのRedhat LinuxはVietkey Linux
    2. Vietsoftware:
      • 従業員150名、
      • ハノイ市ポータル等をOSSベースで多数構築
    3. Vietkey Group:
      1. 従業員70名
        ベトナム初のVietkey Linuxを開発
    4. NCS:
      • 従業員82名
      • OSS e-Learning
    5. Nhat Vinh:
      • 従業員18名
      • システム管理のVOSA

>Top 5. Status-quo of eGov Systems of Vietnam:

  • Present Gov system of Vietnam:
    • Scale:
      There are following three systems are used in Vietnam, which are relatively small scale with 5-6 servers.
      1. Standalone
      2. Client-server
      3. Three tiers architecture:
        presentation (browser), business logic (Web server, application server), and data tier (database server) for better maintainability of the system. And load sharing in each tier further improve expandability.
    • Nationwide Database:
      Nationwide database integration more than 640 regional database is promoted, but still in a tangle.
  • Promoting organizations:
    • Absence of powerful leadership:
      122 Committee and MOST had been a leader until 2002, now MPT became ministry in charge, but any of them seems to be lacking in powerful leadership.
    • Improper government procurement:
      • Government procurement: may take as long as 2 years.
      • Budget predicament: may execute half as much as.
      • Inspection: may delay as long as 1 year, and may require free maintenance until the inspection.
    • Improper assignment among ministries:
      • There may be two local authorities, which may cause confusion:
        The financial bureau of Hanoi People's Committee may be controlled by the Hanoi People's Committee and MOF.
        (Cf: Similar phenomena are common in Japan!)
  • Involvement of foreign companies:
    • Consultant:
      Foreign big companies tend to consult and plan at initial stages of big governmental systems such as nationwide database or large scale of systems.
    • Actual installation:
      Actual installation works were done by Vietnamese companies. Big projects are mostly to be awarded to FPT group.
  • IT human resources of government:
    • Insufficient IT strategist:
      A strategist is urged who can draw a grand design of eGov and IT strategy of the government.
    • Powerless IT engineers:
      Salary of government is said a third as much as private sector, which could not attract capable engineers.
    • HRD status-quo:
      HRD is focused so far to expand basic operation of the systems. It should cultivate more high-grade system supervisors, project managers, and business developers.

5. ベトナムeGovシステムの現状:

  • ベトナム政府システムの現状
    • 規模:
      1. スタンドアロン
      2. クライアント・サーバ
      3. 3層アーキテクチャ
    • 全国データベース:
  • 推進組織:
    • 強力なリーダシップの不在
    • 政府調達方式の不備
      調達プロセス (2年以上かかる場合あり) 、予算 (半分も執行されない場合あり) 、検収 (1年以上かかる場合あり) 等の不備あり。
    • 各省庁の役割分担不明確
  • 外国企業の関わり:
    • コンサル:
    • 実際の構築:
  • 政府の人材育成:
    • IT戦略家が不足:
    • 政府機関でのIT技術者:
    • IT教育:

>Top 6. OSS eGOV Pilot Project:

  • OSS priority policy:
    • Government declares OSS priority policy, but actual procurement is done by commercial OS base.
    • Software copyright issue:
      • Further through policy is needed to become a member of WTO.
      • It is said 95% is piracy software by BSA)
    • No incentives to adopt OSS :
      • Clear incentive to promote OSS is needed.
      • Comment: There are such cases that no responsibility is required about the adoption of Linux OS, and the cost difference with commercial OS can be retained as additional budget
  • Application development by OSS :
    • eLearning system by MOHA:
    • eGov and eLearning system by Hochimin People’s Committee.
    • Portal site for SME by Hocimin People's Committee.
  • OSS HRD:
    HRD based on OSS is the core project of the OSS Master Plan.
    • HRD by MOST
    • HRD by MOET
    • HRD by MOLISA
    • HRD by MOHA
  • OSS Standard software:
    • OSS core software to be developed by MOST.
      (No concrete plan)
    • OSS Information Bank
      • Version control
      • Vietnamization
      • Provision of information & manuals
    • Localized OSS for desktop to be developed by Hochimin Peoples’s Committee.

6. OSS eGovパイロット計画:

  • OSS利用優先政策の徹底
    • 実際の調達では必ずしもOSS利用が徹底していない。
    • ソフトウェア知的財産権:
      • WTO加盟のためにも更なる徹底が必要
      • 95%が違法コピーとの報告あり(BSA)
    • OSS利用のインセンティブなし:
      • OSS利用に対する明確なインセンティブが必要
      • ) Linux OSを採用の責任免除、および商用OSとの差額は追加予算として留保などケースあり。
  • OSSによるアプリケーション開発:
    • eLearningシステム(MOHA)
    • eGovおよびeLearning (HCM人民委員会)
    • 中小企業向けポータルサイト (HCM人民委員会)
  • OSS人材育成:
    • MOST
    • MOET
    • MOLISA
    • MOHA
  • OSS標準ソフトウェア:
    • OSSコアソフトウェア開発(MOST)
    • OSS情報・製品バンク
    • デスクトップOSS開発(HCM人民委員会)
>Top 7. OSS related IT industry:
  • Software industry is small:
    • Software market in Vietnam $105M, while Hardware $410M.
    • Even revenue of the biggest FPT software is about $6M
  • Oligopolistic situation:
    • The difference of No.1 FPT and No.2 VDC (Vietnam Data Communication) is 8 times in terms of revenue. FPT group has 70% market share in big projects and 50% in SME projects.
  • Outsourcing from overseas:
    • The revenue of FPT Software dedicated overseas outsourcing business is $6M, while that of FPT Software Solutions dedicated domestic software development is $3.5M.
  • OSS related business:
    • Major companies involved in OSS: 200 staff of CMC, 150 of VietSoftware, and 18 of Nhat Vinh, which are much smaller of 3,400 staff of FPT Group.
    • Small business and simple solution of OSS:
      Mostly small business related eGov systems
    • OSS is not profitable:
      Vietkey and CMC, developer of Vietnamized Linux could not be profitable.
  • OSS related technology:
    • Engineers of OSS related companies are mostly users of OSS server products (Apache, sendmail, qmail, BIND, etc.), and are not OSS developers.
    • In Vietkey engineers who can customize Linux kernel are only 5 in number.
    • No experience in large-scale, mission-critical OSS system:
      FPT Group are mostly involved governmental systems. But even FPT group are assumed to have little experiences in large scale systems.
    • FPTsoftware
  • HRD of IT companies:
    • Outsourcing among IT companies is not active; thus certification of technical qualification is not pervasive.
    • No OSS curriculum in university.
    • Private companies are positive in HRD.

7. OSS関連IT産業:

  • ソフトウェア産業は小規模:
    • ソフトウェアは$105M、ハードウェアは$410M
    • 最大のFPT Softwareでも売上$6M
  • 寡占状態:
    • FPTグループによる寡占状態。1位のFPTと2位のVDCとは8倍の売上差あり。またFPTは大規模案件で市場シェア70%
  • 海外アウトソーシング中心:
    • FPT Software (海外アウトソース)の売上は$6M、一方FPT Software Solutions (国内ソフトウェア開発)の売上は$3.5M
  • OSS関連ビジネス:
    • OSSに関与している主な企業は、CMC 200名、VietSoftware 150名、Nhat Vinh 18名で、いずれもFPTグループの3,400名に比べて小規模
    • OSSビジネスは小規模、単一ソリューション
    • OSSは利益上げていない
  • OSS関連技術力:
    • OSS関連企業の技術者はOSSサーバ製品 (Apache, sendmail, qmail, BIND等) の利用者であって、OSSの開発者ではない。
    • VietkeyでもLinuxカーネルの改修を行うのは5名程度
    • 大規模、MCシステムではOSS経験無し:
  • IT企業の人材育成:
    • IT企業間のアウトソースは不活発。従って技術資格取得は普及していない。
    • 大学でもOSS研修なし。
    • 民間企業は人材育成に熱心

>Top 8. Consideration(1) - OSS skill level:

  • Level of OSS skillfulness:
    Major OSS application used in Japan:
    1. Web server
    2. Mail server
    3. Database/Datawarehouse
    4. Application server
    5. Groupware
    6. File/Printer server
    7. Security management/Anti-virus measure
    8. System management
    9. Backup management
    10. System development and its environment
    11. ERP/Business package
    12. Storage management
    13. EC/EDI
    14. EPI (Enterprise Process Improvement)
    15. Cluster
    16. Document management system, e-Document
    17. Contents management system (CMS)
    18. Learning management system (LMS)
  • Already installed systems:
    • The above 1) Web server, 4) Application server, and 17) CMS are already installed as eGov system in Vietnam.
  • In the process:
    • 2) Mail server, 3) Database, 11) ERP are in the process of installation as eGov system.
    • Qualified engineers of these technology have experience of mostly small projects.
  • Should be promoted by OSS:
    • 13) EC/EDI, 16) Document management system, 18) LMS, and 5) Groupware should be promoted by government.
    • These systems except groupware are already developed and used in private sector.
  • HRD is urged:
    • HRD for 8) System management, 9) Backup management, 12) Storage management, and 13) Cluster are needed.
  • Dissemination/promotion is needed:
    • 7) Security management
  • Collaboration between government & private sector
    • Strategic support for the development of OS

8. 考察1 - OSSスキルレベル:

  • OSSスキルレベル:
    1. Web server
    2. Mail server
    3. Database/Datawarehouse
    4. Application server
    5. Groupware
    6. File/Printer server
    7. Security management/Anti-virus measure
    8. System management
    9. Backup management
    10. System development and its environment
    11. ERP/Business package
    12. Storage management
    13. EC/EDI
    14. EPI (Enterprise Process Improvement)
    15. Cluster
    16. Document management system, e-Document
    17. Contents management system (CMS)
    18. Learning management system (LMS)
  • すでに構築済システム:
    • 上記の 1) Web server, 4) Application server, および 17) CMS はすでにベトナムeGovシステムとして構築実績あり
  • 構築中のシステム:
    • 2) Mail server, 3) Database, 11) ERP は今後さらなる実績の積上げが必要
    • これらの技術者は主に小規模システム構築経験のみ
  • OSS化支援必要技術
    • 13) EC/EDI, 16) 文書管理、18) LMS、5) グループウェアは政府によるOSS化支援システム
  • 人材育成必要分野
    • 8) システム管理、9) バックアップ管理、12) ストレージ管理、13) クラスター分野が必要
  • 普及啓蒙必要分野
    • 7) セキュリティ管理
  • 官民協業必要分野
    • OS開発に関する戦略的支援

>Top 9. Consideration (2) Effectiveness of eGov Pilot Project:

  • Skill of RFP (Request for proposal):
    • Vietnamese companies have less skill in upstream designing capability.
    • So far depending on overseas corporations or consultant in such basic designing.
    • OSS large projects should be supported by foreign skills.
  • HRD for OSS :
    • Quality and quantity of OSS teachers should be increased.
    • Candidate for OSS teachers should be trained overseas.
  • Budget planning:
    • Surer and quicker execution of budge is urged in order to sound development of private sector.

9. 考察2 - eGovパイロットプロジェクトの有効性:

  • 要件定義のスキル:
    • ベトナム企業は上流行程の経験が少ない
    • システム化要件定義は外国企業依存
    • OSS大型案件は外国のスキルの支援必須
  • OSS人材育成:
    • OSS教師が質量ともに増加必要
    • OSS教師候補は海外研修が必要
  • 予算計画:
    • 確実・迅速が予算執行が急務。これは民間の健全な発展のために必要

>Top 10. SWOT analysis of Vietnam:

As a tentative analysis of SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, & Threat) of Vietnam is as follows:

Strength Weakness
  • Diligence & seriousness (honor student as LDC)
  • Government leadership
  • Unity of the nation
  • Language capability (English penetration)
  • Poor network infrastructure
  • Less capital stock
  • Increase of foreign debt
  • Less business/technical experience
  • Bureaucracy
Opportunity Threat
  • Success model of China
  • Market-oriented economy
  • Support of EU/US/ASEAN/Japan/Korea (omnidirectional diplomacy)
  • Open market (WTO membership)
  • Scenic resources as soft power
  • Digital divide
  • Economic divide
  • Regional divide
  • Oligopolistic situation
  • Big government, small private sectors
  • Competition among developing ASEAN neighbors
  • Five times visit to Vietnam in 2005 became unforgettable memory for me.
  • I'd expect the actual development of eGov and OSS utilization in Vietnam.
  • And someday I'd challenge to ride on Hochimin - Hanoi railway traveling the length of Vietnam.
  • Ryotaro Shiba writes that there is a common root of rice cultivation and alimentary yam paste (konnyaku). The place is said Yun-nan province, from where downstream of Yanzi river then came to Japan, while another root may come to Vietnam over the mountain.
  • 2005年の5回に亘るベトナム訪問は忘れられない記憶となった。
  • ベトナムにおけるeGovとOSSの利用の実際の発展を期待したい。
  • そしていつの日かベトナムを縦断するホーチミン~ハノイ間の鉄道に挑戦してみたい。
  • 司馬遼太郎によれば、稲作と蒟蒻には共通のルーツがあるという。それは雲南省とのことで、そこから揚子江下流域へそして日本へやってきた。一方のルートは山を越えてベトナムへ来たらしい。

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