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The Business & Economics of Linux
and Open Source

Cat: ICT
#: 0505b

Martin Fink



The Business and Economics of Linux and Open Source


Martin Fink




  1. Prologue:
  2. Linux Adoption:
  3. Benefits of Linux:
  4. Application Availability:
  5. Timeline & Who's who of Linux:
  6. GNU/Linux system:
  7. Desktop Linux:
  8. Scalability:
  9. What is Open Source?:
  10. Open Source and Non-Open Source:
  11. Attributes of Open Source:
  1. プロローグ:
  2. Linuxの採用:
  3. Linuxのメリット:
  4. 有用なアプリケーション:
  5. Linux年表と開発者列伝:
  6. NU/Linuxシステム:
  7. 6デスクトップLinux:
  8. スケーラビリティ:
  9. オープンソースとは:
  10. オープンソースと非オープンソース:
  11. オープンソースの属性:
  • I bought this book at the Linux World Conference & Expo at San Francisco in Aug. 2004.
  • There are many books for open source software written from technical viewpoints, but few from business: this is a rare case of such category.
  • この本は、2004年8月の Linux World Conference & Expo @San Franciscoにて購入した。
  • 技術の視点からかかれたオープンソースソフトの本は多いが、ビジネスの視点のものは少ない。本書はその稀な本の一つである。

>Top 0. Prologue:

  • Linux is a product of a community including Linus Torvalds and many other volunteers. I'd like mention some of the famous names mention at the LinuxWorld.
  • A bunch of Linux Geeks:
    Linus Torvalds, Jon "maddog" Hall, David "DOC" Searls, Eric S. Raymond, Marc Torres, Larry Augustin, Brian Biles, Greg Zehr, Rob Glasser, Jeff "Hemos" Bates, Tim O'Reilly, Bruce Perens, Marc Ewing, Thomas Butta, Geoff "Manddrake" Harrison, John H. Terpstra, Dan Frye, Scott Handy, Carsten 'Raster' Haitzler, San 'Nettwerk' Mehat, Michael Tiemann, Chirs DiBona, Ransom H. Love, Benoy Tamang, Don Hansen, Lyle Ball, Bryan Sparks, Fernand D. Sarrat, Arthur F. Tyde III, David L. Sifry, Dvid Mandala, Chirs Kolar, Sam Ockman, Jon Kats, Rob "CmdrTaco" Malda, Phil Hughes, Peter Salus, Brian Proffitt, Steve Crocker, Vint Cerf, John Quarterman, Bryon Bertrim, Mac Brown, Dan York, Scott Draeker, Camron Cooper, Brock Meeks, Bill Parish, Brian Frank, Laurent Meynier, Eric Lefevre, Robin Ford, John Taschek, Arne Flones, Deepak Saxena, Trae "" McCombs, ....

0. プロローグ:

  • LinuxはLinus Torvaldsやその他大勢のボランティアの参加するコミュニケーションティの製品である。以下にそのLinuxコミュニティの有名人達をLinuxWorldからの情報で列挙してみる。
  • Linuxオタク列伝:
    Linus Torvalds, Jon "maddog" Hall, David "DOC" Searls, Eric S. Raymond, Marc Torres, Larry Augustin, Brian Biles, Greg Zehr, Rob Glasser, Jeff "Hemos" Bates, Tim O'Reilly, Bruce Perens, Marc Ewing, Thomas Butta, Geoff "Manddrake" Harrison, John H. Terpstra, Dan Frye, Scott Handy, Carsten 'Raster' Haitzler, San 'Nettwerk' Mehat, Michael Tiemann, Chirs DiBona, Ransom H. Love, Benoy Tamang, Don Hansen, Lyle Ball, Bryan Sparks, Fernand D. Sarrat, Arthur F. Tyde III, David L. Sifry, Dvid Mandala, Chirs Kolar, Sam Ockman, Jon Kats, Rob "CmdrTaco" Malda, Phil Hughes, Peter Salus, Brian Proffitt, Steve Crocker, Vint Cerf, John Quarterman, Bryon Bertrim, Mac Brown, Dan York, Scott Draeker, Camron Cooper, Brock Meeks, Bill Parish, Brian Frank, Laurent Meynier, Eric Lefevre, Robin Ford, John Taschek, Arne Flones, Deepak Saxena, Trae "" McCombs, ....

>Top 1. Linux Adoption:

  • Linux adoption (IDC 2002):
    Linux itself can be obtained for free. But, having an approximate view of the copies in use gives an indicator of associated product revenues, such as clients, software, storage, etc. This chart gives a view of how first Linux has been growing. You should infer from this that companies will shift future product investments to Linux to take advantage of this growth.
    <# of copies (both free and purchased) of Linux operation environments is use.>linuxadoption2002
  • Open Source Lingo:
    • Kernel:
      the heart of of the operation system. Linux is in fact a kernel, not an operating system.
    • GNU (Gnu is Not Unix):
      GNU system represents many of other parts (compiler, tools, editors, etc.) It should be referred to as GNU/Linux system.
    • Distribution:
      Common Linux distribution vendors are Red Hat, SuSE, Debian, Mandrake, Connectiva, and Red Flag.
    • Package:
      Since many packages can share the same set of files, complex interdependencies are managed by installation and deployment tools.
    • Free software:
      Free signify freedom, as in free speech, and not to characterize without cost. Everyone should have equal access to source code.
    • Open source:
      Open source is not a license. It provides a common set of specifications to which licenses must adhere to be considered open source.
    • Community:
      Any collection of software developers working collaboratively on a software project.
    • Maintainer:
      The individual, committee, board of directors, or foundation that accepts or rejects code changes into an open source project.
    • GPL (GNU general public license):
      The GPL requires that any modifications to the source base be returned to the community at large.

1. Linuxの採用:

  • Linuxの採用 (IDC 2002):
  • オープンソース用語
    • カーネル
    • GNU
    • デストリビューション
      Red Hat, SuSE, Debian, Mandrake, Connectiva, Red FlagなどのLinuxのディストリビューション・ベンダーをいう。
    • パッケージ
    • フリーソフトウェア
    • オープンソース
    • コミュニティ
    • メインテナー
    • GPL (GNU general public license):

>Top 2. Benefits of Linux:

  • Here are some of the key business benefits of Linux:
    1. Cost:
      Linux can be freely copied, subject to reasonable license terms, without payment of royalties.
    2. Availability of Trained Resources:
      Linux is now more than 10 years old and so trained resources are available. As your enterprise grows and you need more talented personnel to run your network infrastructure, application servers , and data center, Linux-capable talent will be one the most readily available resources.
    3. Support:
      The ability of to get guaranteed support is questionable. But since the code is available to all, anyone  can provide support  and self-support become a lower cost and more viable option.
    4. Control and Vendor Independence:
      Linux is the first viable combination of a commodity OS on commodity hardware (eg. IA-32 architecture). Companies have the choice to mix and match hardware and peripherals since a large ecosystem develops around commodity products.
    5. Software Development:
      Linux has become the primary platform for Fluent development team. Fluent is a leading vendor of CAE software solutions.
    6. Upgrades:
      Much of the motivation for the upgrades is due to hardware and licensing requirements by various  vendors. With Linux, you have the option to consider the costs of self-support, buying support, or doing upgrades and making the best set of tradeoffs for your business.

2. Linuxのメリット:

  • Linuxのビジネス上の主なメリットは以下である。:
    1. コスト:
    2. 熟練の人材:
    3. サポート:
    4. 管理およびベンダーからの独立:
      Linuxは、 (IA-32アーキテクチャのような) コモディティのハードの上にコモディティのOSという実質的には初の組み合わせである。企業はコモディティ製品の周辺に巨大な生態系というべきハードや部品群を組み合わせるという選択肢を持つ。
    5. ソフトウェア開発:
    6. アップグレード:

>Top 3. Application Availability:

  • Apache Web Server:
    Linux owes much of the success to one killer open source application: The Apache Web server was being used by more than 50% of sites on the Internet. (2001)
  • Development environment:
    ISVs have had to maintain multiple development environments of each of their UNIX platforms. Many are shifting to Linux as their core development environment and using it as the base port for all other platforms.
  • Large hardware & software companies support:
    BEA, Dell, HP, IBM, Oracle, SAP, and many others are making products available on Linux.
  • Maturity:
    10 years is actually very young. But LInux has a solid and proven track record in the Internet infrastructure. Another maturity as 'enterprise-readiness': tools not available or very early in their stages of development. Vendors and the open source community are working diligently to fill these gaps.
  • Scalability:
    Vertical scalability by adding processors allows Linux to scale its performance. With release of Linux 2.4 kernel, scalability to 16 processors is possible. (Cf: today's UNIX systems will often scale to 128 processors and beyond.)
    • Horizontal scalability combining a large number of low-cost systems has been one of the great strength of Linux.
    • But the changes to the kernel involve difficult tradeoffs between complexity and capability.

3. 有用なアプリケーション:

  • Apache Webサーバ:
    Linuxはひとつのキラーアプリケーションに大きく依存している。Apache Webサーバは、過半数のインターネットサイトで利用されている。 (2001)
  • 開発環境:
  • 大企業ベンダーによるサポート:
  • 成熟度:
  • 拡張性:
    プロセッサを追加することでの縦の拡張性によってLinuxのパフォーマンスは向上する。Linux 2.4の発表によって16プロセッサーまでの拡張できるようになった。 (但し、今日のUNIXシステムは128プロセッサあるいはそれ以上まで拡張可能である。)
    • 安価なシステムを大量につなげることによる横の拡張性はLinuxの強みの一つである。
    • 一方、カーネルを変更することは、複雑性と処理能力との間に困難なトレードオフの課題を包含することにもなる。

>Top 4. Timeline & Who's who of Linux:

  • 1984: Free Software Foundation (FSF) is formed.
  • 1991: The first code for Linux is released.
  • 1994: Linux 1.0 is released. Red Hat is founded.
  • 1996/6: Linux 2.0 is released
  • 1997/5: 'The Cathedral and the Bazaar' is published.
  • 1998/2: Open Source is coined.
  • 2001/1: Linux 2.4 is released.
  • Who's who:
    • Linus Torvalds:
      is the creator and maintainer of Linux.
    • Alan Cox:
      was considered Linus' top lieutenant until 2001; still commands tremendous influence within the community.
    • Marcelo Tosatti:
      Linus and Alan transferred the maintenance torch of the stable Linux to Marcelo.
    • Dave Miller:
      is the developer who will check the networking stacks in the Linux kernel.
    • Richard Stallman:
      is the founder of the FSF, and is also the creator of the GNU.
    • Bruce Perens:
      is the project leader for the Debian project. He authored a 'Social Contract,' and 'Open Source Definition (OSD).'
    • Eric Raymond:
      is an anthologist and thought leader.
    • Larry Augustin:
      is CEO of VA Software Corp, who was originally incorporated as VA Linux System.
    • Tim O'Reilly:
      is President of O'Reilly Books, and continue to have a tremendous influence on the open source movement.
    • Brian Behlendorf:
      is the co-founder of the Apache Software Foundation.
    • Michael Tiemann:
      founded Cygnus Solutions, which was acquired by Red Hat in 2000.
    • Bob Young:
      is credited with the success of today's most popular Linux distribution, Red Hat.
    • Jeremy Allison:
      is the leader of SAMBA project, which is key interoperability technology.
    • Miguel de Icaza:
      is a founder of Ximian Corp, and a founder of Mono, which is an open source implementation of a subset of .NET framework.

4. Linux年表と開発者列伝:

  • 1984: フリーソフトウェア協会(FSF)設立
  • 1991: 最初のLinuxコード発表
  • 1994: Linux 1.0発表
  • 1996/6: Linux .20発表
  • 1997/5: 「カテドラルとバザール」出版
  • 1998/2: 「オープン・ソース」の言葉作成
  • 2001/1: Linux2.4発表
  • Linux人名録:
    • Linus Torvalds:
    • Alan Cox:
    • Marcelo Tosatti:
    • Dave Miller:
      Linux カーネルでのネットワーク・スタックを審査する開発者
    • Richard Stallman:
    • Bruce Perens:
      Debianプロジェクトのリーダ。またSocial ContractやOpen Source Definition (OSD)を創始者。
    • Eric Raymond:
    • Larry Augustin:
      VA Software CorpのCEOで、VA Linuxシステムを具体化
    • Tim O'Reilly:
    • Brian Behlendorf:
      Apache Software Foundationの共同創立者の一人。
    • Michael Tiemann:
      Cygnus Solutions社の創設者。後2000年にRed Hatに買収された。
    • Bob Young:
      今日最も人気のあるLinuxディストリビュータであるRed Hatの創設者
    • Jeremy Allison:
    • Miguel de Icaza:
      Ximian Corpの創始者、また.NET環境でのサブセット環境下でのオープンソース利用する'Mono' (サルの意) の創始者

>Top 5. GNU/Linux system:

  • Linux is only the kernel, the core foundation that keeps an overall system functioning properly.
    • Richard Stallman frequently asserts that Linux total system should be called GNU/Linux system.
    • However, there are other components such as X11 windowing system, desktop interfaces, file-sharing interoperability tools, etc. are also usually delivered with Linux.
  • Operating System (OS):
    linux_osThere is no fully accepted standard of OS.
    When networking was still new, core networking stacks (such as TCP/IP) was sold as add-ons
    • OS is the link between the application and the resources (hardware component).
    • Resource utilization in Linux can be thought of in three dimensions:  1) management, 2) administration, and 3) control. Here, management provides computer resources available, administration tools configure these available resources, and the kernel controls available resources based on its design and configuration.
  • Micro Kernel:
    microkernelMicro kernel break apart most of the key control functions (such as Device & I/O, Network stacks, File system interface, Memory manager, Process manager, and Security control. Rather than state information being available to all functions, messages are passed from one function to another.
    • Linux Kernel Patches:
      Just as modules provide a mechanism to add new functionality to the Linux kernel, patches provide a way to extend or change kernel functionality. Patches are often thought of as a mechanism to repair defects. With Linux, patches are also used to change or add functionality to the kernel.
    • Linux Version Control:
      New kernel version in development are issued an odd number for the sub-version number. Kernel versions 2.1.x, 2.3.x, and 2.5.x are all kernels that have been, or are, under development. Kernel versions with even sub-numbers, such as 2.0.x, 2.2.x, and 2.4.x, are all released kernels considered ready for production.  After a kernel has been released and stabilized, Linux Torvalds will initiate a new development cycle. The kernel community will assemble to determine the list of features that will comprise the next release of the kernel.
    • Non-mainstream processors:
      In addition to the x86 (IA-32), the linux kernel is available on other alternative architectures:
      • AMD'S Opteron
      • HP's PA-RISC and Alpha
      • IBM's PowerPC and S/390
      • Intel's Itanium
      • Motorola's 68K
      • SUN's SPARC

5. GNU/Linuxシステム:

  • Linuxは、すべてのシステムがうまく機能するためのコアとなるカーネルだけである。
    • Richard Stallmanは、しばしばLinuxの全システムは、GNU/Linuxシステムと呼ばれるべきであると主張している。
    • 但し、X11ウインドウシステム、デスクトップインターフェイス、ファイル共有のインターオペラビリティのツールなどのようにLinuxを一緒に配布される他の要素もある。
  • オペレーティング・システム (OS):
    • OSはアプリケーションとハード資源とのリンクの機能である。
    • Linuxのリソース活用は、以下の三次元から成っている。1) マネジメント、2) アドミニストレーション、および3) コントロールである。マネジメントはコンピュータ資源を使用可能(available)にし、アドミニストレーションはこの使用可能な資源を配置(configure)し、そしてカーネルのはその設計に基づき配置された資源をcontrolする。
  • マイクロ・カーネル
    • Linux カーネル・パッチ:
    • Linuxバージョン管理:
      開発中の 新たなカーネルバージョンは奇数のサブ番号で公表される。つまりカーネルバージョンが2.1.x、2.3.x、2.5.xなどすべて開発中段階である。偶数のサブ番号のカーネルバージョン、つまり2.0.x、2.2.x、2.4.xなどはすべて製品としてのカーネルである。一つのカーネルが発表され安定化するとLinux Torvaldsは新たな開発段階へ着手する。カーネル・コミュニティとして会合し、次期カーネルの発表に含まれる機能リストを決定する。
    • その他のプロセッサ対応:
      インテルx86 (IA-32)以外にも、Linuxカーネルが以下のアーキテクチャで利用可能である。
      • AMD'S Opteron
      • HP's PA-RISC and Alpha
      • IBM's PowerPC and S/390
      • Intel's Itanium
      • Motorola's 68K
      • SUN's SPARC

>Top 6. Desktop Linux:

  • Desktop Linux:
    • Share: Desktop Linux is less than 2%.
      Application availability, end-user friendliness, migration and retaining costs make it difficult for most enterprises to consider deployment on their desktops.
    • High-end imaging applications, such as the entertainment industry and medical imaging markets, are also attracted to the Linux desktop.
    • Linux delivers a UNIX experience for the end-user with a cost profile similar to PC deployments.
    • The open source community has already delivered two primary desktop interface:
      • GENOME desktop: For GENOME it is GTE
      • K-Desktop Environment (KDE): For KDE it is Qt.
      • GENOME and KDE are the equivalent of the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). For CDE the API was Motif.
    • StarOffice and OpenOffice:
      StarOffice is offered by SUN, and OpenOffice is an open source implementation of StarOffice.

6. デスクトップLinux:

  • デスクトップLinux:
    • Desktop Linuxのシェアは2%以下。利用可能なアプリケーション、ユーザの慣れ、移行や維持経費が大きく企業にとって普及が進まない原因である。
    • 高性能の画像処理分野、例えば映像産業や医療画像の分野ではLinuxデスクトップは好評である。
    • Linuxは、ユーザにとっては、ほぼPCの導入の価格でUNIXでの経験を活用できる。
    • オープンソース・コミュニティはすでに2つの主要なデスクトップのインターフェイスを提供している。
      • GENOMEデスクトップ
      • K-Desktop 共通のデスクトップ環境 (CDE)として2つのデスクトップインターフェイスを提供している。GENOMEとKDEである。
    • StarOfficeとOpenOffice:

>Top 7. Scalability:

  • Vertical Scaling and Horizontal Scalability:
    • Vertical Scaling:
      One large system with a single operating system image.
    • Horizontal Scaling:
      Large number of systems, each with its own operating system image.
    • 2.4 Kernel:
      It was a significant leap forward for multiprocessor (or vertical) scalability.
  • Embedded Linux:
    • The ability to customize the Linux kernel makes it an ideal environment for embedded applications. It is possible to build a scaled down, limited functionality kernel that runs in 1MB of RAM.
    • Since many embedded applications involve the deployment of million of units, eliminating the need for royalty fees based on volume makes Linux an attractive choice.

7. スケーラビリティ:

  • 垂直的と水平的スケーラビリティ:
    • 垂直的スケーラビリティ:
    • 水平的スケーラビリティ:
    • 2.4カーネル:
  • 組込Linux:
    • Linuxカーネルをカスタマイズできることが組込アプリケーションにとって理想的な環境である。また機能を制限したりして1MB RAMでカーネルを動かすことができる。
    • 多くの組込アプリケーションはユニット数が多いので、ライセンス使用料がかからないLinuxは魅力的な選択肢となる。

>Top 8. What is Open Source?:

  • As a technology leader, you need to become an expert on open source. It presents opportunity since it give you new ways to lower costs and create competitive advantage. Open source also creates a threat by exposing your business to significant intellectual property risk.
    • Freedom and open source:
      The word 'free' means the freedom to copy, modify, and distribute the software, and does not mean at no cost.
    • The Open Source Definition:
      The rights are codified formally in an OSD (Open Source Initiative), a non-profit corporation. It is important to understand that the OSD is not itself a license. Below is a summary of 9 items provided by OSD*
      1. Free redistribution
      2. Source code
      3. Derived works
      4. Integrity of the author's source code.
        Some open source licenses require modifications to be made through patches, so that the original source is distributed unmodified, and then the modifications are provided in a separate patch file.
      5. No discrimination against person or groups
      6. No discrimination against field of endeavor
      7. Distribution of license
      8. License must not be specific to a product.
      9. License must not contaminate other software.
        OSD cannot force its license terms on other software distributed with it. Thus encourages companies to distribute both open source and proprietary software on the same CD.
    • Open source licenses, including GPL:
    • Non-open source incense often mistaken for open source:
    • Open source and US cryptography export laws:
    • Open source development methodology:
  • Intellectual Property and Reciprocity:
    • Copyleft:
      To copyleft a program, the software is first copyrighted, and then the software is distributed under a incense, a legal instrument that gives everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the programs's code or any program derived from it but only if the distribution terms are unchanged.
    • Reciprocity:
      Reciprocity obligations don't arise by the sue of software; they only arise when the modified (or improved) software is distributed.
    • Dual-Licensing:
      Any copyright owner can license copyedited software under more than one lines. For some open source software, the licensor allow you to elect to license the software under either a reciprocal open source license (like GPL) or under a commercial license.

8. オープンソースとは:

  • 技術リーダとしては、オープンソースに習熟する必要がある。これは新たにコストを下げて、競争優位を創り出す機会となるからである。オープンソースはまた知的所有権を巡って既存ビジネスの驚異となり得る。
    • 自由とオープンソース:
    • オープンソースの定義:
      この権利は非営利団体であるOSD (Open Source Initiative)によって成文化されており、以下の9項目が規定されている。
      1. 自由な再配布
      2. ソースコード
      3. 派生的作品
      4. 原ソースコードの統一性
      5. いかなる個人団体に対しても非差別的
      6. いかなる貢献分野に対しても非差別的
      7. ライセンスの配布
      8. ライセンスは特定製品に限定されない
      9. ライセンスは他のソフトウェアを包含しない。
    • GPLなどオープンソース・ライセンス:
    • オープンソースと誤解される非オープンソース
    • オープンソースと米国の暗号輸出法:
    • オープンソース開発の手法:
  • 知的所有権と相互主義:
    • コピーレフト:
    • 相互主義:
      相互主義の義務はソフトの利用によって発生はしない。それは修正 (改良) ソフトを配布する場合に生じる。
    • 二通りのライセンス方法:
      どのコピーライト・オーナーもコピーライトのソフトを2つ以上のライセンスを行うことができる。一部のオープンソースで、ライセンサーは(GPLのように) 相互的なオープンソースとしてライセンスするか、商用のライセンスにするか選択できる。

>Top 9. Open Source and Non-Open Source (オープンソースと非オープンソース) :

  • Popular Open Source Incenses
    used by Apatch Web Server; similar to MIT and BSD.
    develped for Perl language.
    BSD incense allows you to make the code private and then distribute it under a proprietary license.
    GNU General Public (GPL)
    used for Linux kernel.
    GNU Lesser General (LGPL)
    Similar to GPL, but allows you to link non-free software to LGPL code.
    IBM Public License
    similar to Mozilla Public License
    Mozilla Public License (MPL)
    open source version of Netscape Navigator.
    MIT License
    A very simple incense that has virtually no restriction on how the source is used. The text of the license must be included in all copies.
    Python License
    an interpreted, object-oriented programming language within in Linux.
    Qt Public Licene (QPL)
    a development library of KDE desktop environment; similar to Motif in functionality.
    SUN Industry Standards Source License (SISSL)
    apply to XML file format spec. and Open Office API spec.

  • Non-Open Source Incenses:
    These licenses do not meet the requirements of the OSD.
    Microsoft Shared Source provides access to source, but requires to return changes you make back to MS.
    Netscape Public License (NPL) Until Mozilla provided a true open source code base for the browser, NPL gave Netscape a way to release the code.
    SUN Community Source License is also a form of a shred source increase; different from SISSL.

>Top 10. Attributes of Open Source:

This set of characteristics is the foundation of an important culture that drives community behavior.

  • Maintainer:
    Most projects are run by a maintainer. The maintainer is the individual who initiated the project, or who was assigned by a previous maintainer. Maintainers are always volunteer.
  • Respect:
    Built over time, and by ongoing contributions, respect for the individual is paramount in the open source development community. The community tends to be equally vocal with praise and criticism. Continuous, high-quality contributions will build respect over time.
  • Individuals as maintainers:
    Even tough companies will often fund and promote open source projects, the maintainer is often an individual.
  • Tools:
    CVS is a well-accepted source management tool and Bugzilla is most often used for defect tracking. SourceForge, and now Savannah, provide a development infrastructure and repositories.
  • Release early and often:
    Rapid and ongoing release cycle allows a team of developers to quickly recognize defects and address them early in the development process.
  • Release for production when ready:
    The community generally release to production when the maintainer think the product is ready. Those who accept this immediately begin to benefit from high qualtiy software, fewer patches, and a better system architecture.

10. オープンソースの属性:

  • 以下の特徴は、オープン・コミュニティを規定する重要な文化基盤である。
  • 維持管理者:
  • 尊敬:
  • 維持管理者としての個人:
  • ツール:
    CVSはソース管理ツールとして使用され、Bugzilla はディフェクト・トラッキングによく利用される。SourceForge、今はSavannahが開発インフラおよびリポジトリーを提供する。
  • 早期にそして頻繁にリリース:
  • 準備次第、製品をリリース:
  • Business matters in open source software, which is surely promoted from the business point of view.
  • オープンソースソフトにおいてもビジネスは重要である。それはビジネスの観点からしっかり推進されている。

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