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Domain Name Dispute

Cat: ICT
Pub: 2001
#: 0201b

Toshihiro Tsubo, etc.


Domain Name Dispute


Toshihiro Tsubo, etc. 坪俊弘、他
2001 2001年
; ; 3 Univ & 1 Labo; ACPA; Cybersquatting; DNS; Forum shopping; ICANN; Neutrality-Simple-Rapid; Sunrise period; Supervisor; ; UDRP; ;
  • The reading circle of was held at Glocom in May 2002. Mr. Toshihiro Tsubo, president of Global Commons, Inc. and director of JPNIC, co-writer of this book, made a straightforward presentation about the latest "Domain Name Dispute" issue of the Internet.
  • 2002年5月にGlocomで読書会が開催された。グローバルコモンズ株式会社社長で、JPNIC理事の坪俊宏氏は本書の著者の一人であり、インターネットのドメインネーム紛争について最新の問題をわかりやすくプレゼンしてくれた。

>Top 1. Explosion of Internet in 1990s:

  • 1990: The first commercial use of Internet:
    In US, the Internet changed from the network for researchers to that for corporations and general public.
  • 1993: Appearance of NCSA Mosaic; realizing multimedia- based Internet replacing text-based Internet until then.
  • 1995: pay service started in applying ".com" domain, depending US government fund until then.

1. インターネットの爆発 (90年代):

  • 1990年:最初の商用プロバイダ:
  • 1993年:NCSA Mosaic登場:
  • 1995年:.comドメイン名の有料化

>Top 2. Dispute on "Domain Name":

  1. Dispute between trademark holders:
    Trademark can be registered according to forty or more categories, but the domain name must be unique in the ".com" category.
  2. "Cyber squatting":
    Dispute between unjustifiable register of domain name:

2. ドメイン名紛争:

  1. 商標権者同士の紛争:
  2. 不正目的の登録者対商標権者の紛争(Cyber squatting)

>Top 3. History of Domain Name (Pre-DNS age):

  • Host Name as discriminator:
    • 1996: ARPANET starts
    • connecting three universities and one laboratory
    • Each host was discriminated by number:
      (UTAH was 4, and SRI was 2)
  • Uniform control of Host Name by NIC:
    • Host Name was determined at the discretion of each university: E.g.: UTAH-10, SRI-ARC
    • Each site supervisor informed change of the host to SRI-NIC by email.
    • SRI-NIC published HOSTS.TXT (text file) integrating the information from each site.
    • Breakup of the concentrated control by HOSTS.TXT.
      • SRI-NIC maintained HOSTS.TXT file once or twice a week, but it takes time to reflect each local information.

3. ドメイン名の歴史(DNS以前):

  • 識別子としてのホスト名:
    • 1969年:ARPANETの開始
    • 米国3大学・1研究機関を接続
    • 各ホストは数値で識別
  • NICによるホスト名の一元管理:
    • 当初のホスト名は、各大学で任意に決定
      例:UTAH-10, SRI-ARCなど
    • 各サイト管理者は、ホストの追加変更をSRI-NICにメールで通知
    • SRI-NICは、各サイトからの情報をまとめて、HOSTS.TXT(テキストファイル)として公開
    • HOSTS.TXTによる集中管理の破綻
      • 更新が週1-2回のため、ローカル情報の反映に時間がかかる

sa 4. Discovery of DNS (Domain Name System):

  • "Domain" is a unit of devolution which dnscontrols the name of the host. There is a supervisor in each domain.
    • If you have new sub-domains under your domain, you must use different labels.
    • Sub-domains are the children of the parent domain.
    • The end domain name is the host name.
    • Thus, the DNS controls the distributed information corresponding to the host name and the address number.
  • >Top Nov. 1983:
    Technical specification of DNS was published.
  • Mar. 15, 1985:
    The first domain name was registered: "symbolics.com"
  • 1993:
    NSF assigned InterNIC operation to the following organization:
    • AT&T
    • Network Solutions Inc.
    • General Atomics
  • Sep. 1995:
    NSI started pay registration service:
    Registration fee $100, Maintenance fee $50/year
  • Nov. 1996:
    JAHC started.
    • International Ad Hoc Committee
    • solved "gTLD" issue.
  • Feb. 1997:
    • "gTLD-MoU"
    • approved 7 new gTLD:
  • Jan. 1998:
    • issued "Green paper."
  • Jun 1998:
    • issued "White paper."
      DNS is based on US government.
  • >Top Sep. 1998
    • established "ICANN" (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)

4. DNSの発見:

  • ドメインは、名前を管理する上での権限委任単位(ドメイン毎に管理者がいる)
    • 配下に複数のドメインを新設する場合は異なるラベルをつける
    • ある親ドメインの子はサブドメイン
    • 末端のドメイン名がホスト名
    • ホスト名と数値アドレスの対応情報を分散管理
  • 1983年11月:
  • 1985年3月15日:
    初のドメイン登録 "symbolics.com"
  • 1993年:
    • AT&T
    • Network Solutions Inc.
    • General Atomics
  • 1995年9月:
  • 1996年11月:JAHC発足
    • International Ad Hoc Committee
    • gTLDを解決
  • 1997年2月
    • "gTLD-MoU"
    • 7つの新gTLD導入:
      • firm
      • shop
      • web
      • arts
      • rec
      • info
      • nom
  • 1998年1月:
    • Green paper発表
  • 1998年6月
    • White paper発表
  • 1998年9月
    • ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 設立

>Top 5. Kinds of TLD:

  • gTLD (generic Top Level Domain):
    • .com, .net, .org
    • .edu, .gov, .mil, .int
    • .biz, .info, .name, .museum, .aero, .coop, .pro
  • ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain)
    • .au, .jp, .us, ....
    • .to, .tv, .ws ....
      (E.g.: fly.to, fuji.tv, website)

5. TLDの種類:

  • gTLD (generic Top Level Domain)
    • .com, .net, .org
    • .edu, .gov, .mil, .int
    • .biz, .info, .name, .museum, .aero, .coop, .pro
  • ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain)
    • .au, .jp, .us, ....
    • .to, .tv, .ws ....
      (例:fly.to, fuji.tv, website)

>Top 6. Dispute Settlement Panel:

  • Dec. 1, 1999:
    ICANN adopted "UDRP" (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy) , the rules of procedure.
    • Registra authorized by ICANN adopted UDRP.
    • Prevention of 'Forum shopping'
    • Cf: "ACPA" was started in Nov. 29, 1999
  • Administrative dispute resolution services:
    • WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) $1500/case
    • NAF (The National Arbitration Forum)
    • CPR (CPR Institute for Dispute Resolution)
    • ADNDRC (Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Center)
  • >Top Applicable disputes:
    • Object:
      • Identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the complainant has rights
      • Doubt of legitimate interests in respect of the domain name
      • The domain name has been registered and is being used in bad faith. ("Cyber Squatting")
    • Evidence of registration and use in bad faith:
      • for the purpose of selling, renting or transferring the domain name registration
      • in order to prevent the owner of the trademark or service mark from reflecting the mark in a corresponding domain name
      • for the purpose of disrupting the business of a competitor
      • intentional attempt to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users by creating a likelihood of confusion with the complainant's mark.
  • Statistics of dispute settlement by URDP (as of May 2002):
    • 80% of 10,000 cases was transferred to the complainant (=a new holder), while 15% was lawful of the original user.
  • Example: (Yes= Complainant won, No= Defendant won)
    • Yes: juliaroberts.com
    • No: sting.com
    • Yes: bungeishuju.com, bunshun.com
    • Yes: gameb0y.com
    • No: canoncopymachines.com
    • No: jal.com
  • Review of ICANN UDRP:
    • So far no actual requirement for amendment, because there is no need to make more complicated procedures than the present.

6. 紛争解決パネル:

  • 1999年12月1日:
    "UDRP" (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy)
    • ICANN認定RegistraはUDRPを採用
    • Forum shopping (法廷漁り)防止
    • 米国ACPA法成立(1999.11.29)
  • ICANN認定紛争処理機関:
    • WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) $1500/件
    • NAF (The National Arbitration Forum)
    • CPR (CPR Institute for Dispute Resolution)
    • ADNDRC (Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Center)
  • UDRPの成立要件:
    • 対象:
      • ドメイン名が申立人のもつ商標・サービスマークと同一あるいは混乱するほど類似していること
      • 当該ドメイン名に関し、正当な権利に疑義があること
      • 当該ドメイン名が不正に登録され、かつ不当な目的に使用されていること。後で高く販売する目的。
        ("Cyber squatting" (ドメイン占拠)
    • 不正な登録および使用の証明:
      • <対価型>転売目的
      • <反復型>妨害行為のパターン化
      • <営業妨害型>ライバル会社への混乱目的
      • <顧客不当誘因型>ユーザの誤認混同狙い
  • UDRP紛争処理の統計 (2002/5現在)
    • 10,000件の内、80%が申立人に移転、15%は登録者が勝訴
  • 紛争事例:(○申立人勝訴、×登録者勝訴)
    ○ juliaroberts.com
    × sting.com
    ○ bungeishunju.com, bunshun.com
    ○ gameb0y.com
    × canoncopymachines.com
    × jal.com
  • ICANN UDRP レビュー:
    • UDRPをこれ以上複雑にする必要はない

>Top 7. JP-DRP (JP Domain Resolution Policy):

  • Dispute regarding ".jp" has not been actualized than ".com."
  • JPNIC: effective in Nov. 2000
    • the basic procedure is same with UDRP
    • Object:
      • "trademark or other identification
      • The domain name has been registered or is being used in bad faith. ("Cyber squatting")
  • Administrative dispute resolution services:
    • Intellectual Property Right Arbitration Center in Japan
  • Statistics in Japan (as of May 2002):
    • 11 cases were transferred to the complainant, while 3 cases were transferred through mediation.
  • >Top Legal procedure:
    • US: "ACPA" (Anti-Cybersquatting Consumers Protection Act)
      • to prevent tarnishing commercial activities
      • sunrise period: preference to application by the trademark holders
    • Japan: Unfair Competition Prevention Law (effective in Jan 2001)

7. JP-DRP:

  • JPでは .comほどCyber squatteringは顕著化していなかった.
  • JPNIC、2000年11月施行
    • 基本的な枠組みはUDRPと同じ
    • 申立の根拠は「商標その他の表示」
    • 不正な目的の対象「登録または使用」
  • JPNIC認定紛争処理機関
    • 日本知的財産仲裁センタ-
  • JP-DRP分処理の統計(2002/5現在):
    • 18件の内、11件移転、3件は和解で移転
  • 法的手続:
    • 米国:ACPA(反サイバースクワッティング消費者保護法)
      • 申立人の商活動を卑しめる(tarnish)することを防止
      • サンライズ期間: 商標権者に対する優先受付期間
    • 日本:不正競争防止法(2001/12施行)
  • >Top The structure of UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy gives us an appropriate social norm of the Internet society; The procedure of UDRP pursues neutrality, simple and rapid procedures for resolution as much as possible, subject to the final decision by the court.
  • In more generally, UDRP may be one of the realistic trials how to settle dispute arisen in the global information society.
  • UDRPの構造は、いかにもインターネット社会の規範にふさわしい。最終的な結論は裁判所の判断に委ねるとしても、出来る限り中立性、簡易・迅速な手続き追求している。
  • さらに一般的に、URDPは、グローバルな情報社会における紛争解決の一つの現実解を提供しているのではないか。

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